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00:00:02 - Beginnings as a sports reporter

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Partial Transcript: Um, when did you begin working with the St. Louis Star Times?

Segment Synopsis: Toomey discusses the beginnings of his career with the St. Louis Star Times in 1937. He also talks about his military service in World War II. He discusses his experience reporting for newspapers in the St. Louis area.

Keywords: Army; Double Headers; Officer Candidate School; Reporting; Robert Hannegan; Rochester Club; Sports Department; St. Louis Star Times; Wars

Subjects: Baseball players; Baseball players--United States; Detroit Tigers (Baseball Team); Draft; Greenberg, Hank; St. Louis Browns (Baseball Team); St. Louis Cardinals (Baseball Team); United States. Army; United States. Army. Officer Candidate School; World War, 1939-1945.

00:03:51 - First impressions of Happy Chandler

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Partial Transcript: When did you, uh, first come into contact with, with Happy Chandler?

Segment Synopsis: Toomey talks about his first impressions of Happy Chandler as the Commissioner of Baseball. He states that Chandler seemed knowledgeable when he answered questions, but never seemed to give a complete answer.

Keywords: Interviews; Reporters; Reporting

Subjects: Baseball commissioners; Chandler, Happy, 1898-1991; St. Louis Browns (Baseball Team); St. Louis Cardinals (Baseball Team)

00:05:13 - Baseball before and after World War II

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Partial Transcript: Uh, again, I'm particularly interested in the 1946 season, really to do with the Cardinals...

Segment Synopsis: Toomey discusses the "caliber" of pre-and post-war baseball. He gives his opinion that player talent during the war was not nearly as high as it was before and after it.

Keywords: Playboys; Post-war era; Talent; Womanizers

Subjects: Baseball; Baseball players; Baseball players--1940-1950; St. Louis Browns (Baseball Team); St. Louis Cardinals (Baseball Team); World War, 1939-1945

00:06:28 - Post-war players for the Browns / Vern Stephens

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Partial Transcript: Well, the Browns had a, had, had a, I think it was about that time, that uh, coming back from spring training...

Segment Synopsis: Toomey reflects on the state of the St. Louis Browns after the war. He gives his opinion that the talent was not great, but the player attitudes were. He also talks about Vern Stevens leaving the Browns and returning again shortly afterwards.

Keywords: Attitude; El Paso (Tex.); Mexican League; Mexico; Playboys; Talent

Subjects: Baseball players; Baseball players--1940-1950; Liga Mexicana de Beisbol Profesional; St. Louis Browns (Baseball Team); Stephens, Vern, 1920-1968

00:07:47 - Ray Gillespie, Jorge Pasquel and the Mexican League

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Partial Transcript: Uh, when did you first know about the Mexican League, as far as the...

Segment Synopsis: Toomey discusses a meeting he was in with Ray Gillespie and Jorge Pasquel, in which Pasquel attempted to buy his Army-issued Colt 45 handgun.

Keywords: Army officers; Army.; Bernardo Pasquel; Colt 45; Jefferson Hotel; M1911 pistol; Mexican League; Mexico; Ray Gillespie; St. Louis Star Times

Subjects: American League (Major League Baseball); Baseball; Italy; Liga Mexicana de Beisbol Profesional; Newspapers.; Pasquel, Jorge, 1907-1955; United States. Army; World War, 1939-1945

00:11:22 - Vern Stephens' short-lived jump to the Mexican League

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Partial Transcript: Well I, I was on the newspaper, I was on the newspaper at that time and it, uh, he went to Mexico and...

Segment Synopsis: Toomey talks about Vern Stephens' move to the Mexican League, and his abrupt return to the St. Louis Browns. He describes the influence that manager Luke Sewell may have had on Stephens' return.

Keywords: Charlie Dewitt; Mexican League; Ray Gillespie; World War II

Subjects: Baseball; Baseball managers; Baseball players; Baseball--Management; Liga Mexicana de Beisbol Profesional; Sewell, Luke, 1901-1987; St. Louis Browns (Baseball Team); Stephens, Vern, 1920-1968

00:14:08 - Mickey Owen's signing with the Mexican League

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Partial Transcript: Um, just four days, well actually three days later, the, Mickey Owen signed.

Segment Synopsis: Toomey discusses Mickey Owen's signing with the Mexican League and the influence that Jorge Pasquel and Ray Gillespie may have had on the transaction. He also discusses the experiences that other Cardinals players had in the Mexican League.

Keywords: Baseball contracts; Baseball player wives; Clubhouses; Fred Martin; Gloria Owen; Lou Klein; Mexico; Money orders; Playing conditions

Subjects: Lanier, Max; Liga Mexicana de Beisbol Profesional; Owen, Mickey; Pasquel, Jorge,1907-1955; Rickey, Branch, 1914-1961; St. Louis Browns (Baseball Team)

00:21:13 - Branch Rickey's personality and career in baseball

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Partial Transcript: While we're on Branch Rickey-- again, you must have had some contact with him before the war...

Segment Synopsis: Toomey discusses Branch Rickey, his (Rickey's) relationship with Mickey Owen, and his lawsuit against Ray Gillespie and Jorge Pasquel. He also discusses Rickey's personality and baseball career, including his creation of the farm system.

Keywords: Alphonso Pasquel; Baseball farm system; Black players; Five year plan; Lawsuits; Mexican League; Ray Gillespie

Subjects: African American baseball players; Baseball managers; Baseball team owners; Baseball--Management; Brooklyn Dodgers (Baseball Team); Liga Mexicana de Beisbol Profesional; Owen, Mickey; Pasquel, Jorge,1907-1955; Pittsburgh Pirates (Baseball Team); Rickey, Branch, 1914-1961

00:27:50 - American players contract-jumping to the Mexican League / Chandler's sanction against these players

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Partial Transcript: Was there any resentment, for instance, Vern Stephens jumped for three or four days, and of course...

Segment Synopsis: Toomey discusses the players who jumped their contracts to play for the Mexican League, and the penalties that Commissioner Chandler imposed on them as a result. He also talks about the reaction some of the teams and players had to this.

Keywords: Contract breaking; Contracts; Five year bans; Mexican League; Pitching; Suspensions

Subjects: American League (Major League Baseball); Brooklyn Dodgers (Baseball Team); Chandler, Happy, 1898-1991; Lanier, Max; Liga Mexicana de Beisbol Profesional; Newcombe, Donald; St. Louis Browns (Baseball Team)

00:31:38 - Sam Breadon's personality / Breadon as a baseball manager

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Partial Transcript: Mr. Breaden I found to be a very delightful man. I enjoyed him very much and I had many meetings with him.

Segment Synopsis: Toomey discusses Sam Breadon as a person and as a baseball manager. He reflects on Breadon's meeting with Jorge Pasquel, in which he requested that he stop trying to sign on Cardinals players. He also talks about the fine that Commissioner Chandler imposed on Breadon for arranging this meeting.

Keywords: Agreements; All Star Game (1948); All-Star Break; Boston (Mass.); Detroit (Mich.); Fines; Honesty; Interviews; Mexican League; Philadelphia (Pa.)

Subjects: Baseball commissioners; Breadon, Sam, 1876-1949; Chandler, Happy, 1898-1991; Liga Mexicana de Beisbol Profesional; National League (Major League Baseball); Pasquel, Jorge, 1907-1955; Rickey, Branch, 1914-1961; St. Louis Cardinals (Baseball Team)

00:37:57 - The players' views on Sam Breadon / the proposed Cardinals strike

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Partial Transcript: What did the players think of, of Breadon? I, I understand that he was somewhat aloof from, from the ball club...

Segment Synopsis: Toomey shares his opinion of how the players felt about Sam Breadon. He also talks about the Cardinals' threat to strike in response to Jackie Robinson.

Keywords: Baseball strikes; Desegregation; Racial desegregation; Racism; Racism in baseball

Subjects: African American baseball players; Baseball players; Baseball team owners; Baseball--Management; Breadon, Sam, 1876-1949; Marion, Marty, 1916-2011; Musial, Stan, 1920-2013; Racism; Robinson, Jackie, 1919-1972; Segregation; St. Louis Cardinals (Baseball Team); Strikes and lockouts

00:42:26 - The Mexican League and the American Major Leagues

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Partial Transcript: Uh, again, later on, I can't recall now...

Segment Synopsis: Toomey gives his opinion on the state of the Mexican League and the American Major Leagues in the late 1940s.

Keywords: Baseball player rights; Baseball salaries; League agreements; Salaries

Subjects: Baseball commissioners; Baseball players; Chandler, Happy, 1898-1991; Liga Mexicana de Beisbol Profesional; Major League Baseball (Organization); Major League Baseball (Organization)--History

00:46:09 - Team owners and the beginning of the player pension plan

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Partial Transcript: But getting, getting to my point, um, why at this time, you know, were the owners interested in, in the pension plan...

Segment Synopsis: Toomey discusses the beginnings of player pension plan. He gives his opinion that it was created in order to keep players from jumping to the Mexican League and to prevent them from unionizing.

Keywords: Minimum salaries; Pennant; Pension plans; Player pension plan; Player representatives; Player salaries; Players' union; Salaries

Subjects: Baseball players; Baseball team owners; Marion, Marty, 1916-2011; Pensions.; St. Louis Browns (Baseball Team); St. Louis Cardinals (Baseball Team)

00:49:03 - Muddy Ruel and other administrators / William O. DeWitt

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Partial Transcript: Can you tell me a little bit about Muddy Ruel? Again, the reason I ask you about this person and that person...

Segment Synopsis: Toomey reflects some of the administrators of Major League baseball, Muddy Ruel's personality, William Dewitt's personality, and the latter's relationship with Happy Chandler.

Keywords: Bill DeWitt; Dick Muckerman; Managers; Muddy Ruel; Players; Richard Muckerman; Sternness; Zach Taylor

Subjects: Baseball managers; Baseball players; Chandler, Happy, 1898-1991; DeWitt, William O.; Ruel, Herold Dominic, 1896-1963.; Sewell, Luke, 1901-1987; St. Louis Browns (Baseball Team)

00:52:34 - Leo Durocher's suspension

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Partial Transcript: Um, let me move on, and, 1947 was also the year of the Durocher suspension.

Segment Synopsis: Toomey gives his views on the players' reactions to the suspension of Leo Durocher in 1947.

Keywords: Joe Medwick; Suspension

Subjects: Chandler, Happy, 1898-1991; Durocher, Leo, 1906-1991.; Gambling

00:54:07 - Jackie Robinson and other African American players

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Partial Transcript: Um, 1947 was also the year that Jackie Robinson broke into baseball. And again, you probably didn't have as much of an opportunity to...

Segment Synopsis: Toomey discusses the introduction of African American players into the Major Leagues, and the reaction that players, fans and others had to them. He gives a reason for why the St. Louis Cardinals did not have any black players until 1953.

Keywords: African Americans; Athletes; Farm leagues; Hank Thompson; Tom Alston

Subjects: African American baseball players; Baseball players; Brooklyn Dodgers (Baseball Team); Brown, Willard; Campanella, Roy, 1921-1993.; Newcombe, Donald; Robinson, Jackie, 1919-1972; St. Louis Browns (Baseball Team); St. Louis Cardinals (Baseball Team)

01:01:15 - A conflict between Fred Saigh and Commissioner Chandler about Sunday games

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Partial Transcript: What kind of a person was Fred Saigh? Did you know anything about Fred Saigh...

Segment Synopsis: Toomey discusses Fred Saigh and his interactions with Happy Chandler. He reflects on the conflict due to a game rescheduled to be played on a Sunday. He also talks about the end of Chandler's commissionership. The interview is concluded.

Keywords: Contracts; Dick Butler; Resignations; Robert Hannegan; Sunday games

Subjects: American League (Major League Baseball); Baseball commissioners; Baseball team owners; Butler, Richard; Chandler, Happy, 1898-1991; Major League Baseball (Organization); National League (Major League Baseball); Saigh, Fred