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00:00:02 - Introduction / farming and work / family history

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Partial Transcript: This is an interview with Mr. Frank Bowling for the oral history project, Frontier Nursing Service, by Dale Deaton at approximately 9:00AM on 31 July, 1978.

Segment Synopsis: Frank Bowling is introduced. He talks about planting during certain phases of the moon. He discusses working and going to school. He talks about his family.

Keywords: Ancestors; Beliefs; Big Creek (Ky.); Children; English descent; Floods; Gardening; Gardens; Growing; Homes; Houses; Inherit; Jobs; Lineage; Moon phases; Mules; Phases of the moon; Planting; Plowing; Potatoes; Schoolrooms; Schools; Work; Working

Subjects: Agriculture--Appalachian Region; Agriculture--Kentucky; Education; Families.; Rural schools--Appalachian Region; Traditional farming--Kentucky

00:06:53 - Work

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Partial Transcript: Well, let's go back to the work a little bit. What did you move up to after you completed the plowing?

Segment Synopsis: Bowling talks about several of the jobs he has had over the years including logging and surveying.

Keywords: Cattle; Corn; Cows; E.H. Patterson, Trustee; Farming; G.F. Stearns Land & Company; Growing; Hickory; Hogs; Jobs; Kentucky Coal Lines Company; Land; Leases; Log woods; Money; Oxen; Peabody Coal Company; Pigs; Prices; Property; Renting; Surveying; Surveyors; Tenants; Wages; Work; Working

Subjects: Agriculture--Appalachian Region; Agriculture--Kentucky; Bell County (Ky.); Clay County (Ky.); Ford, Henry, 1863-1947.; Leslie County (Ky.); Letcher County (Ky.); Logging; Perry County (Ky.); Traditional farming

00:15:44 - Great Depression / logging

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Partial Transcript: Well, part of the work that you did with them--Chris Queen was Ford's manager in here wasn't he?

Segment Synopsis: Bowling discusses the effects of the Great Depression on the area. He talks more about his job in the logging industry.

Keywords: Beattyville (Ky.); Belle Point Lumber Company; Blue Hole Creek (Ky.); Cattle; Citizens; Corn; Cows; Crops; Droughts; Dry spells; Great Depression; Jobs; Labor; Local people; Locals; Logging industry; Logs; Lumber; Managers; Mulberry & Robinson Lumber Company; Ownership; Oxen; Poor; Poplar trees; Poverty; Rafting; Rafts; Red Bird River (Ky.); Timber; Virgin timber grow

Subjects: Depressions--1929--Kentucky; Frankfort (Ky.); Logging; World War, 1939-1945

00:26:15 - Great Depression / London, Kentucky

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Partial Transcript: During the Depression here, was there very much influence by the federal government on the people? Did--do you remember when the federal government started giving out food to the people and public assistance and all of that?

Segment Synopsis: Bowling talks more about the Great Depression and the government programs implemented to assist people. He also discusses a trip he took to London, Kentucky during which he saw a train for the first time.

Keywords: Build; Buy; C.C.C.; CCC; Carnivals; Chickens; Civil War veterans; Cutshin (Ky.); Electricity; Farmers; Federal government; Food; Government relief programs; Great Depression; Jobs; Labor; Manchester (Ky.); Money; Needs; Plowing; Public assistance; Public welfare; Railroad tracks; Red Bird Center; Roads; Stores; Supplies; Trains; Union army; W.P.A.; WPA; Work; Working

Subjects: Civilian Conservation Corps (U.S.); Depressions--1929--Kentucky; Hoover, Herbert, 1874-1964.; Hyden (Ky.); Leslie County (Ky.); London (Ky.); Railroads; Roosevelt, Franklin D. (Franklin Delano), 1882-1945; United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865.; United States. Works Progress Administration.

00:36:42 - Civil War / slaves

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Partial Transcript: Well, you talked about the one man that you worked for being a veteran of the Union Army. Did you know anyone in this area that was a veteran of the Confederate Army?

Segment Synopsis: Bowling talks about the Civil War and various people he knew of that participated. He also gives a description of the only slave he knew in the area.

Keywords: Big Creek (Ky.); Charity; Church; Confederacy; Confederate Army; Corn; Farming; Federal grand jury; Generals; Hoeing; Jobs; Settlers; Slaves; Soldiers; Union Army; Wars; Wills; Women; Work; Working

Subjects: African Americans--Kentucky; Clay County (Ky.); Ford, Henry, 1863-1947.; Garrard County (Ky.); Slavery; United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865.

00:49:23 - Social activities / whiskey

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Partial Transcript: What did people do for social activities in those early days? Did they get together with dances or corn-hoeings or whatever?

Segment Synopsis: Bowling talks about social events in the area. He describes how to make homemade whiskey.

Keywords: "Frolics"; Barrels; Community; Corn; Dances; Drinks; Homemade whiskey; Malt corn; Moonshine; Selling; Social activities; Socializing; Whiskey

Subjects: Appalachian Region--Social life and customs; Distilling, Illicit; Leslie County (Ky.)

00:54:35 - Church / floods

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Partial Transcript: Well, were there many churches throughout this area when you were growing up, Frank?

Segment Synopsis: Bowling describes the local churches and their events. He talks about floods that have impacted the local area.

Keywords: "Hard shell Baptists"; Assistance; Associations; Church services; Dogs; Electricity; First Holiness Church; Food; Help; Helping; Mountains; Mutton; Preachers; Religion; Religious aspects; Rivers; Sermons; Sheep; Social activities; Social aspects; Social life and customs; Water

Subjects: Baptists; Church; Churches--Kentucky; Floods--Kentucky; Hazard (Ky.); Preaching--United States; Red Bird (Ky.); Red Cross; Rural churches

01:05:33 - Civil War veterans / Matt

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Partial Transcript: We were talking about the people that you knew or had heard about that had been Civil War veterans. And before we talk about them, let's talk about these people that moved in this--first to start--

Segment Synopsis: Bowling talks more about Civil War veterans he knew. He also tells more stories about Matt, the slave that he knew.

Keywords: Cemeteries; Civil War veterans; Democrats; Rebels; Slaves; Soldiers

Subjects: Slavery; United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865.

01:12:45 - Genealogy

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Partial Transcript: Well, the early families that--that settled the Red Bird River, could you go over those again for me?

Segment Synopsis: Bowling talks about the family histories of various local residents.

Keywords: Ancestors; Ancestry; Big Creek (Ky.); Children; Communities; Davis, Jefferson, 1808-1889.; History; Illegitimate children; Lineage; Settlers; Stories

Subjects: Families.; Genealogy--Appalachian Region; Leslie County (Ky.); Red Bird (Ky.)

01:18:04 - Frontier Nursing Service

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Partial Transcript: Well, do you remember when you first got acquainted with with the people with Frontier Nursing Service? You were working for Ford Lumber Company then, weren't you?

Segment Synopsis: Bowling discusses the Frontier Nursing Service and recalls meeting Mary Breckinridge.

Keywords: Boarding; Build; Business meetings; Childbirth; Children; Clara Ford Center; Clinics; Committee meetings; Deliver babies; Delivery; Doctors; F.N.S.; FNS; Fordson Coal Company; Help; Helping; Intelligence; Jobs; Land; Leaders; Manchester (Ky.); Nurses; Red Bird Center; Red Bird Committee; Respect; Smart; Social activities; Social events; Treatment; Work; Working

Subjects: Appalachian Region--Social life and customs; Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Ford, Clara Bryant, 1866-1950.; Ford, Henry 1863-1947.; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Hyden (Ky.); Mary Breckinridge; Medical care--Appalachian Region; Medical care--Kentucky; Public health; Public welfare--Kentucky; Rural health services; Wendover (Ky.)

01:28:15 - Changes to the Frontier Nursing Service

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Partial Transcript: Well, how do you view the changes? Is there--is there much difference with Frontier Nursing Service now than the way it was when Mrs. Breckinridge was alive?

Segment Synopsis: Bowling talks about the changes that have occurred to the Frontier Nursing Service over the years. He discusses whether the FNS has helped him personally.

Keywords: Ailments; Appreciation; Burns; Care; Changes; Charge; Committees; Death; Diphtheria; Donations; Fevers; Free; Health clinics; Help; Helping; Hookworms; Horses; Hospitals; Illnesses; Immunizations; Injuries; Inoculations; Manchester (Ky.); Money; Mountains; Pain; Partnerships; Penicillin; Pneumonia; Poison; Poor; Public Health Department; Service; Shots; Sickness; Snakes; Sti

Subjects: Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Mary Breckinridge; Medical care, Cost of; Medical care--Appalachian Region; Medical care--Kentucky; Nurses; Nursing; Rural health services

01:39:45 - Red Bird Committee

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Partial Transcript: Did the men in this local area build the clinic? I think the--the Ford family, Clara Ford, furnished the material. Did the local people build the clinic?

Segment Synopsis: Bowling talks about working on the Red Bird Committee and what they have accomplished.

Keywords: Build; Carpenters; Clara Ford Center; Clinics; Committee meetings; Community; Donations; Financial trouble; Ford family; Ford, Clara 1866-1950.; Ford, Henry 1863-1947.; Fund raising; Future; Government; Help; Helping; Land; Local people; Locals; Money; Nurses; Pay; Red Bird Center; Red Bird Committee; Roads; Wages; Work; Working

Subjects: Committees; Medical care--Appalachian Region; Medical care--Kentucky; Rural health services

01:45:33 - School

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Partial Transcript: Well, let's talk about the schools up through here. Were there--were there public schools available when you grew up as a young--young boy?

Segment Synopsis: Bowling talks about his memories of going to school as a child.

Keywords: Big Creek (Ky.); Classes; Discipline; Fighting; Heating stoves; Jobs; Learning; Lunches; Public schools; Punishments; Rules; School buildings; Students; Whipping; Work; Working

Subjects: Education--Appalachian Region; Education--Kentucky; Rural schools--Appalachian Region; Rural schools--Kentucky; Teachers--Kentucky

01:53:05 - Mineral and timber rights / Wendover

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Partial Transcript: Well, with the timber industry and all that up in here, the local people sort of, in the late 1800s, began to sell out their mineral and timber rights. Do you remember hearing them talk about that very much?

Segment Synopsis: Bowling discusses local people selling their land to mining and timber companies. He talks more about working at Wendover.

Keywords: Ford, Henry, 1863-1947.; Help; Helping; Land; Land boom; Mineral rights; Money; Ownership; Prices; Selling; Surveying; Surveyors; Timber industry; Timber rights; Tracts of land

Subjects: Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Mary Breckinridge; Property--Kentucky; Wendover (Ky.)

01:59:21 - Mary Breckinridge / Frontier Nursing Service

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Partial Transcript: Did you see Mary Breckinridge most of the times that you went to Wendover?

Segment Synopsis: Bowling talks more about working with Mary Breckinridge and how the Frontier Nursing Service was run. The interview is concluded.

Keywords: Childbirth; Clara Ford Center; Deliver babies; Delivery; Ford Motor Company; Help; Helping; Home births; Horses; Jobs; Local citizens; Local people; Locals; Money; Naming babies; Pregnancy; Pregnant; Projects; Red Bird Center; Work; Working

Subjects: Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Mary Breckinridge; Medical care--Appalachian Region; Medical care--Kentucky; Nurses; Nursing; Rural health services