Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History

Interview with Georgia Ledford, August 17, 1978

Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, University of Kentucky Libraries
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00:00:07 - Introduction / Frontier Nursing Service

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Partial Transcript: Today is May 17th, 1978. [Inaudible] sunny day. I'm talking to the secretary from one of the local FNS committees. Would you please tell me your name?

Segment Synopsis: Georgia Ledford is introduced and gives her family history. She talks about her first memory of the Fronter Nursing Service. She also discusses midwives.

Keywords: Child birth; Citizens; Community; Deliver babies; Delivery; F.N.S.; FNS; Family history; Frontier Nursing Service committees; Healthcare; Hot chocolate; Immunizations; Innoculations; Local committees; Locals; Log houses; Marriage; Mid-wives; Money; Nurse-midwives; Nursing centers; Patients; Public health; Public welfare; Rallies; Schools; Secretaries; Services; Speec

Subjects: Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Clay County (Ky.); Committees; Families.; Flat Creek (Ky.); Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Health; Mary Breckinridge; Medical care--Appalachian Region; Medical care--Kentucky; Medicine, Rural; Midwifery--Appalachian Region; Midwives--Appalachian Region; Nurses; Nursing; Rural health clinics--Kentucky

00:05:52 - Christmas / Mary Breckinridge

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Partial Transcript: Can you tell me about--uh--Christmas, say, at Flat Creek? Was there a party?

Segment Synopsis: Ledford talks about Christmas in Flat Creek. She gives a description of Mary Breckinridge.

Keywords: Appearance; Care; Children; Clinics; Clothing; Committee members; Communication; Dental clinics; Dinners; Diseases; Dogs; Dress; Entertainment; F.N.S.; FNS; Fashion; Fillings; Food; Gifts; Healthcare; Help; Helping; Horses; Illnesses; Immunizations; Innoculations; Intelligence; Kids; Medical examinations; Meetings; Money; Nursing centers; Paperwork; Parties; Presents; Publi

Subjects: Appalachian Region--Social life and customs; Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Children--Health and hygiene--Kentucky; Christmas--Appalachian Region; Committees; Dental hygiene; Flat Creek (Ky.); Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Health; Mary Breckinridge; Medical care--Appalachian Region; Medical care--Kentucky; Medicine, Rural; Nurses; Nursing; Rural health

00:11:32 - FNS committee meetings / nurses and midwives

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Partial Transcript: Do you remember if she ever told you stories about the giant killers?

Segment Synopsis: Ledford describes what happened at FNS committee meetings when she was a child. She discusses nurses and midwives. She talks about her children.

Keywords: Children; Cocoa; Committee meetings; Deliver babies; Delivery; Dinners; Enthralling; Fairy tales; Fees; Giant killers; Giants; Healthcare; Help; Helping; Home births; Home deliveries; Hot chocolate; Kids; Meals; Money; Mothers; Parties; Patience; Patients; Pregnancy; Pregnant; Prenatal care; Reader's Digest; Red Bird Mission Hospital; Stories; Storytelling; Tales; Wages

Subjects: Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Childbirth; Cincinnati (Ohio); Committees; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Hazard (Ky.); Health; Lexington (Ky.).; Mary Breckinridge; Medical care--Appalachian Region; Medical care--Kentucky; Medicine, Rural; Midwifery; Midwives; Nurses; Nursing; Rural health clinics--Kentucky

00:15:53 - Flat Creek committee

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Partial Transcript: When did you first become active in the committee, the Flat Creek committee, or have you always been, or is this just part of your life?

Segment Synopsis: Ledford talks about the Flat Creek committee of the Frontier Nursing Service.

Keywords: Bake sales; Chairman; Chairperson; Churches; Clinic days; Committee members; Community; Construction; Cooking; Dinners; F.N.S.; FNS; Fixing; Flat Creek Church; Flat Creek Committee; Fund raising; Inflation; Jobs; Meals; Money; Red Bird Center; Roads; Rummage sales; Secretaries; Shamrock Coal Company; Social activities; Social affairs; Treasurers; Work; Working

Subjects: Appalachian Region--Social life and customs; Coal mines and mining--Kentucky; Committees; Flat Creek (Ky.); Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.

00:20:12 - Red Bird Center closing

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Partial Transcript: Why do you think--what happened at Flat Creek? Why was there the need to close it? No patients, no money to keep it going, a combination,or--

Segment Synopsis: Ledford talks about why the Red Bird clinic is closing and what will happen to the building.

Keywords: Bankrupt; Bankruptcy; Care; Closing; Communities; E.R.; ER; Emergency rooms; Emotions; Endowments; F.N.S.; FNS; Funds; Healthcare; Historical landmarks; Hospitals; Investments; Medical cards; Medical centers; Meetings; Money; Mountains; Old-fashioned; Patients; Red Bird Center; Roads; Rustic; Support; Trees

Subjects: Flat Creek (Ky.); Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Health; Medical care--Appalachian Region; Medical care--Kentucky; Medicare; Medicine, Rural; Nurses; Nursing; Rural health clinics--Kentucky

00:26:12 - More about the FNS Committee

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Partial Transcript: Uh--do you think when the--what is there, a meeting in two weeks of--of the combined groups--

Segment Synopsis: Ledford talks more about her experience working on the Frontier Nursing Service committee.

Keywords: Administration; Chairman; Chairperson; Changes; Clinics; Committee meetings; Committee officers; Community; Customers; Directors; F.N.S.; FNS; Funerals; Hurt; Inflation; Money; Pain; Paying; Red Bird Center; Sadness; Service; Support

Subjects: Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Committees; Flat Creek (Ky.); Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Gender issues; Health; Mary Breckinridge; Medical care--Appalachian Region; Medical care--Kentucky; Medicine, Rural; Nurses; Nursing; Rural health clinics--Kentucky; Women

00:31:09 - Mary Breckinridge / nurses

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Partial Transcript: Let me ask you just a few more things about Mrs. Breckinridge since--

Segment Synopsis: Ledford discusses Mary Breckinridge's funeral. She talks more about her and some of the other nurses from the clinic.

Keywords: Assistance; Babies; Big Creek (Ky.); Breastfeeding; Children; Committee meetings; Dates; Dating; Death; Fraternization; Funerals; Help; Helping; Horses; Infants; Memorials; Midwifery; Midwives; Mothers; Newborns; Red Bird Center; Secretaries; Services; Wakes; Wild flowers

Subjects: Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Clay County (Ky.); Flat Creek (Ky.); Hyden (Ky.); Leslie County (Ky.); Mary Breckinridge; Nurses; Nursing; Wendover (Ky.)

00:37:15 - Nurses

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Partial Transcript: Well, you--you've said all the nurses that you've mentioned were lovely ladies.

Segment Synopsis: Ledford gives her opinion on the nurses at the Red Bird Center and talks about how the community felt about the nurses.

Keywords: Ailments; Changes; Charity; Children; Communication; Communities; Country; Deliver babies; Delivery; Diseases; Dogs; Free; Healthcare; Horses; Illnesses; Jealousy; Kindness; Money; Mules; Need; Plowing; Public health; Public welfare; Red Bird Center; Respect; Rhubarb; Riding horses; Rules; School; Service; Services; Sickness; Stroke patients; Teachers; Women

Subjects: Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Canada; Childbirth; England; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Health; Mary Breckinridge; Medical care--Appalachian Region; Medical care--Kentucky; Medicine, Rural; Nurses; Nursing; Rural health clinics--Kentucky

00:43:56 - Socializing with nurses

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Partial Transcript: Are there any Flat Creek stories that you'd like to see preserved in this oral history project, say?

Segment Synopsis: Ledford talks more about the local nurses including stories about having tea with them and learning to knit.

Keywords: Build; Bungalows; Feisty; Flowers; Food; Friends; Gardens; Homes; Houses; Improvisation; Intelligence; Kettles; Knitting; Lumber; Parties; Prefabricated clinics; Red Bird Center; Scavenger hunts; Social activities; Socializing; Tea; Tea parties; Visiting

Subjects: Appalachian Region--Social life and customs; Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Flat Creek (Ky.); Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Mary Breckinridge; Nurses; Nursing

00:49:45 - FNS and the community

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Partial Transcript: Do you--and this is a question you may not want to answer--do you think in the early days the Frontier Nursing Service did too much for the local people?

Segment Synopsis: Ledford gives her opinion on the effects the Frontier Nursing Service has had on the community. The interview is concluded.

Keywords: Abilities; Changes; Clinics; Coal companies; Confidence; Contracts; Exploitation; F.N.S.; FNS; Funds; Healthcare; Help; Helping; Home visits; Independence; Inflation; Local people; Locals; Manchester (Ky.); Missionaries; Missions; Money; Mud Lick (Ky.); Nurse practitioners; Nurse-midwives; Personalities; Red Bird Center; Timber companies; Treatments; Wounds

Subjects: Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Health; Mary Breckinridge; Medical care--Appalachian Region; Medical care--Kentucky; Medicine, Rural; Nursing; Public health; Rural health clinics--Kentucky; Subjects: Nurses