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00:00:02 - Introduction / coal mining

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Partial Transcript: This is an interview with Mr. Dan Young for the oral history project Frontier Nursing Service by Dale Deaton at approximately 10:30AM at Owl's Nest, Kentucky on 28 August, 1978.

Segment Synopsis: Dan Young is introduced. He talks about working in the coal mines in Kentucky, including a story about working for an African American man.

Keywords: "Chalk eye"; Augers; Black powder; Blow up; Bluegrass Coal Company; Cutting; Drilling; Explode; Fuses; Jobs; Loading; Machines; Money; Pay; Room and board; Shovels; Work; Working

Subjects: African American coal miners; African Americans--Appalachian Region; Coal miners; Coal mines and mining--Kentucky; Race relations--Appalachian Region; Wages--Coal miners

00:10:28 - Working for himself

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Partial Transcript: Well, when you were working for yourself to chute-load coal, what did you get paid for that?

Segment Synopsis: Young talks about working for himself loading coal. He discusses how many hours he worked a day and how much he was paid for each ton of coal.

Keywords: Carbide lights; Coal oil; Jobs; Lighting; Money; Pay; Profit; Work; Working

Subjects: Coal miners; Coal mines and mining--Appalachian Region; Coal mines and mining--Kentucky; Wages--Coal miners

00:14:17 - Other mining jobs

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Partial Transcript: Now, you mentioned some other jobs you did in the mines, like laying track and so forth.

Segment Synopsis: Young discusses some of the other jobs he did in the mines including laying tracks for mine cars and driving ponies and mules.

Keywords: Air; Axes; Coupling; Cutting; Hauling; Jobs; Laying tracks; Mine cars; Mine carts; Mining props; Money; Mortar; Mules; Pay; Ponies; Saws; Sledgehammers; Switches; Timber; Tons; Tools; Work; Working

Subjects: Coal miners; Coal mines and mining--Appalachian Region; Coal mines and mining--Kentucky; Wages--Coal miners

00:23:13 - Accidents in the mines

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Partial Transcript: Did you ever work in a mine when there was an accident in one of them?

Segment Synopsis: Young discusses two accidents that he witnessed while working in coal mines.

Keywords: Arms; Backs; Benefits; Broken; Chest; Disability pay; Disabled; F.N.S.; FNS; Hazard Hospital; Help; Helping; Hospitals; Injuries; Legs; Lewis Coal Company; Pain; Ribs; Rocks; Timber; Wounds

Subjects: Coal mine accidents; Coal miners; Coal mines and mining--Appalachian Region; Coal mines and mining--Kentucky; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.

00:29:06 - Unions / army

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Partial Transcript: Well now, the time that you were working over in Perry County in those coal mines, was there any efforts during the time that you worked there to unionize those miners?

Segment Synopsis: Young talks about whether the mines he worked in were unionized. He talks about trying to join the army during World War I.

Keywords: Children; Coal; Cutshin (Ky.); Deferment; Deferrals; Examinations; Jobs; Loading; Money; Organize; Organizing; Pay; Quitting; Replacements; Strikes; Trucks; Unionize; Unionizing; Volunteering; Wars; Work; World War 1; World War I; World War One

Subjects: Coal miners; Coal miners--Labor unions; Coal mines and mining--Appalachian Region; Coal mines and mining--Kentucky; Perry County (Ky.); United States. Army.; World War, 1914-1918

00:37:18 - Unions / lack of safety equipment in mines

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Partial Transcript: Well, when they were trying to organize a union in this coal mine over here on Cutshin--

Segment Synopsis: Young talks more about coal miner's unions and discusses whether he joined. He mentions his sons' involvement in World War II. He talks about the lack of safety equipment in the mines and speculates about why mining is more dangerous today.

Keywords: Accidents; Air force; Army; Business cards; Changes; Cutshin Coal Company; Danger; Injuries; Inspectors; Lewis Coal Company; Meetings; Mine cars; Mine carts; Money; Navy; Organizing; Safety equipment; Sons; Strikes; Talking; Union coal mines; World War 2; World War II; World War Two

Subjects: Coal miners; Coal miners--Labor unions--Kentucky; Coal mines and mining--Appalachian Region; Coal mines and mining--Kentucky; Wages--Coal miners; World War, 1939-1945

00:43:22 - Meals in the mines / safety in the mines

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Partial Transcript: Well, I suppose you must have taken your own dinner--your own lunch.

Segment Synopsis: Young describes the food he would take to eat at lunch in the mines. He talks more about safety in the mines and what he did to reduce the danger.

Keywords: Accidents; Air; Bologna; Circulation; Coffee; Curtains; Danger; Dinner; Dinner buckets; Food; Lumber; Lunch; Lunch buckets; Lunch pails; Meals; Moon Pies; Slate; Timber; Water

Subjects: Coal miners; Coal mines and mining--Appalachian Region; Coal mines and mining--Kentucky; Coal mines and mining--Safety measures; Food habits--Appalachian Region, Southern

00:48:02 - Coal camps

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Partial Transcript: Well for the--the [inaudible] and where the miners lived, did most of them live in their private homes or in coal camps or--

Segment Synopsis: Young describes the coal camps where the miners and their wives lived.

Keywords: Breakfast; Coal stoves; Commisaries; Cooking; Electricity; Homes; Houses; Jobs; Lunch; Married; Money; Outdoor toilets; Pay; Plumbing; Stores; Water; Wells; Wives; Women; Work

Subjects: Coal miners; Coal mines and mining--Appalachian Region; Coal mines and mining--Kentucky; Wages--Coal miners

00:53:39 - Entertainment / rules against women in the mines

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Partial Transcript: Well, if you worked about ten hours a day, five--most of the time six days a week, what did you usually do in the evenings?

Segment Synopsis: Young talks about what the miners did in their free time. He tells a story about a time he took his wife through the mine.

Keywords: Back luck; Bluegrass Coal Company; Charging stations; Children; Cleaning; Danger; Entertainment; Families; Felonies; Fun; Gold pieces; Houses; Laws; Motors; Movies; Rats; Safety; Shooting galleries; Superstitions; Superstitious; Wives; Women

Subjects: Coal miners; Coal mines and mining--Appalachian Region; Coal mines and mining--Kentucky

01:02:58 - Mary Breckinridge

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Partial Transcript: You told me, one time earlier, about meeting Mary Breckinridge for the first time when she--

Segment Synopsis: Young talks about meeting Mary Breckinridge and discusses how she and the nurses from the Frontier Nursing Service have helped him and his family over the years.

Keywords: Bills; Building; Charity; Children; Construction; Cutshin (Ky.); Doctors; F.N.S.; FNS; Fees; Help; Helping; Horseback; Hospitals; Miscarriages; Money; Restaurants; Talking; Treatment; Walls; Wendover

Subjects: Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Hyden (Ky.); Leslie County (Ky.); Medical care, Cost of; Medical care--Appalachian Region; Medical care--Kentucky; Nurses; Nursing

01:13:45 - Frontier Nursing Service

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Partial Transcript: W--after she first got in here and got the FNS underway, did the nurses come around and visit you every--

Segment Synopsis: Young talks about his experiences with the Frontier Nursing Service.

Keywords: Checkups; Children; Cutshin (Ky.); Deliver babies; Delivery; Doctors; F.N.S.; FNS; Families; Home births; Home visits; Immunizations; Inoculations; Nurse-midwives; Services; Shots; Talking; Treatment; Vaccinations

Subjects: Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Childbirth; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Medical care--Appalachian Region; Medical care--Kentucky; Midwifery--Appalachian Region; Midwives--Appalachian Region; Nurses; Nursing; Public health

01:17:56 - Reactions to the FNS

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Partial Transcript: Well, when--when Mrs. Breckinridge and the--those new nurses came into the area--uh--did it sorta seem like they were new, maybe a little bit of strange--uh--strangers to the people.

Segment Synopsis: Young discusses how the local people felt about the Frontier Nursing Service. He also discusses local people that used home remedies to treat illnesses. He talks about building a hospital. He discusses his wife's miscarriage and how the nurses helped her.

Keywords: Ailments; Building; Confidence; Construction; Doctors; F.N.S.; FNS; Herb doctors; Home remedies; Hospitals; Illnesses; Jobs; Miscarriages; Pregnant; Rocks; Roots; Sickness; Training; Treatment; Trust; Walls; Wives; Work

Subjects: Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Medical care--Appalachian Region; Medical care--Kentucky; Medicine, Rural; Nurses; Traditional medicine

01:25:19 - Building a hospital, walls, and log cabins

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Partial Transcript: The stones that are in that--the building out past the first hospital and the stones in that wall, you cut those on--

Segment Synopsis: Young discusses building a hospital, a rock wall, and furniture. He talks in detail about building a log cabin.

Keywords: Axes; Beeches; Building; Chopping; Construction; Cut; Cutting; Foundations; Furniture; Hammers; Hewing; Homes; Houses; Jobs; Levels; Log cabins; Log houses; Log woods; Logs; Lumber; Maples; Oaks; Pines; Poplars; Rocks; Sawing; Saws; Stones; String; Tools; Trees; Trucks; Walls; White oaks; Wood; Working; Worms

Subjects: Building--Carpentry; Building--Walls; Logging

01:39:22 - Timber and mineral rights

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Partial Transcript: Did the people that--um--uh--perhaps some of the older people that you knew when you were a boy, your grandfather, some of the people that sold, you know, the--their timber rights and--

Segment Synopsis: Young discusses the people that sold the mineral and timber rights to their land and how they felt about selling it. He gives his opinion on strip mining.

Keywords: Coal; Land; Mineral rights; Money; Ownership; Pay; Price; Sell; Strip mining; Timber rights; Trees; Work

Subjects: Coal mines and mining--Appalachian Region; Coal mines and mining--Kentucky; Logging; Perry County (Ky.)

01:45:34 - Making furniture

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Partial Transcript: Well, part of what you do is you make some furniture, stools, and rocking chairs

Segment Synopsis: Young talks more about building furniture, including a demonstration of making a chair. The interview is concluded.

Keywords: Axes; Bark; Carving; Chains; Chairs; Demonstrations; Explanations; Handles; Hickory; Jobs; Knives; Log woods; Making; Mules; Oxen; Poplar; Scalding; Steers; Tools; Wood; Working; Yokes

Subjects: Building--Carpentry; Furniture