Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History

Interview with Fredericka Holdship, March 25, 1979

Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, University of Kentucky Libraries
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00:00:05 - Introduction / Frontier Nursing Service and courier duties

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Partial Transcript: This is an interview with Miss Fredericka Holdship for the Frontier Nursing Service oral history project by Dale Deaton at approximately 10:30AM on March 25th, 1979 at Wendover, Kentucky.

Segment Synopsis: Fredericka Holdship is introduced. She talks about how she became involved with the Frontier Nursing Service. She discusses how she traveled to Hyden and some of her duties as a courier for the FNS.

Keywords: Broken backs; Clinics; Couriers; Donations; Duties; F.N.S.; FNS; Horses; Hospitals; Jean Hollins; Jobs; Leaders; Mail; Medicine; Meetings; Money; Outposts; Pittsburgh Committee; Responsibilities; Speeches; Supplies; Trucks; Volunteers; Work

Subjects: Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Hyden (Ky.)

00:06:07 - Frontier Nursing Service centers

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Partial Transcript: On the--on the way on the lower rounds--uh--do you remember very much about the Dry Hill area? Just before you get to Confluence? Could you tell me what it looked like then?

Segment Synopsis: Holdship discusses the routes taken by the couriers during their rounds delivering supplies to the FNS outpost centers. She describes some of the towns and outpost centers and the people who worked there.

Keywords: Bowlingtown (Ky.); Brutus (Ky.); Buildings; Churches; Clinics; Confluence (Ky.); Dry Hill (Ky.); F.N.S.; FNS; General stores; Horseback; Houses; Jean Tolk; Post offices; Roads; Travelling

Subjects: Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Nurses

00:11:20 - FNS nurses during World War II / local area

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Partial Transcript: What time of the year were you here?

Segment Synopsis: Holdship talks about whether the FNS nurses went back to England during World War II. She describes what the town of Hyden was like at the time. She talks more about her rounds as a courier.

Keywords: Alcohol; Betty Lester; Bull Creek (Ky.); Couriers; Districts; Dry counties; F.N.S.; FNS; Horses; Liquor; Movie theaters; Nurses' aides; Red Bird Center; Routes; Stores; Towns; Travelling; Wendover; Wet counties; World War 2; World War II; World War Two

Subjects: Alcohol--Law and legislation; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Hyden (Ky.); Liquor laws--United States; Nurses; World War, 1939-1945

00:16:55 - Finances at Frontier Nursing Service / social life at Wendover

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Partial Transcript: In 1937, and on up, eve--well even during World War II, the FNS had problems a lot of times getting the materials they needed. Equipment, horseshoes, and all that.

Segment Synopsis: Holdship discusses what she knew of the financial troubles at the Frontier Nursing Service. She talks about what the FNS staff did to relax and have fun. She details the seating arrangement at the dinner table at Wendover. She talks about Mary Breckinridge and others' opinions of her.

Keywords: Agnes Lewis; Budgets; Couriers; Dorothy Buck; Equipment; F.N.S.; FNS; Financial difficulties; Guests; Horseshoes; Mary B. Willeford; Materials; Money; Pay; Problems; Relaxation; Respect; Seating arrangements; Social activities; Social life; Socializing; Square dances; Supplies; Trepidation; Visiting; Wages; Working

Subjects: Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.

00:22:08 - Local people / free time at Wendover

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Partial Transcript: Do you recall anyone--uh--doing some special research projects or studies during the period that you were here?

Segment Synopsis: Holdship discusses the opinions of the local people held by the FNS staff. She discusses whether the FNS helped the local people receive more education. She mentions the animals at Wendover and who cared for them. She talks more about what the FNS staff did during evenings and free time.

Keywords: Animals; Aptitude tests; Attitudes; Berea College; Buildings; Cancer; Chickens; Children; Cows; Dr. Ella Woodyard; Evenings; F.N.S.; FNS; Fun; Guests; Horseback riding; Intelligence; Locals; Opinions; Picnics; Pigs, Gardens; Psychology; Research projects; Square dances; Studies; Swimming; Talking; Wendover; Working

Subjects: Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Education; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.

00:28:28 - Pittsburgh Committee / Board of Governors

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Partial Transcript: Well, ov--over the years that--that you've been involved with it, and the--the people who are considered as the Pittsburgh Committee--uh--has that committee--what types of--have they held any special functions or events to raise funds for the FNS? Or has it been--uh--almost strictly personal involvement?

Segment Synopsis: Holdship talks about the Pittsburgh Committee of the Frontier Nursing Service and whether they have made any fundraising efforts. She talks about her impressions of the local people served by the FNS during their presentations. She discusses the FNS Board of Governors.

Keywords: Advice; Advisers; Board of Governors; Decisions; Donations; Donors; Education; F.N.S.; FNS; Fundraising; Helen Browne; Kate Ireland; Local people; Locals; Marvin Breckinridge; Meetings; Needy; Pittsburgh Committee; Presentations; Speeches

Subjects: Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.

00:34:51 - Spirit of the FNS / local people / Hyden

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Partial Transcript: What do you think there is about the FNS, is there sort of a camaraderie or spirit--uh--that makes people come back to it and work with it?

Segment Synopsis: Holdship discusses the spirit of togetherness within the Frontier Nursing Service. She talks about her impressions of the local families, including discussion on whether they received government aid and subsidies. She talks about the doctors and pharmacies available in Hyden.

Keywords: Acceptance; Aid; Blood banks; Camaraderie; Children; Clinics; Clothes; Confluence (Ky.); Couriers; Deliveries; Delivering babies; Doctors; F.N.S.; FNS; Friendly; Government food; Government relief programs; Hard-working; Helping; Homemade; Jean Tolk; Locals; Social services; Socializing; Spirit; Spoiled; Togetherness; WPA; Working; Zilpha Roberts

Subjects: Childbirth; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Hyden (Ky.); Leslie County (Ky.); Nurses; Red Cross; United States. Works Progress Administration.; Women--Appalachian Region

00:41:41 - Mary Breckinridge / flu epidemic at Wendover

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Partial Transcript: Did Mrs. Breckinridge come to speak any in the Pittsburgh area? After you came down as a volunteer courier?

Segment Synopsis: Holdship talks more about Mary Breckinridge. She mentions the fire that occurred at Wendover in 1942 and the outbreak of influenza that occurred in 1940-1941. She recalls when a bridge was built over the river to the hospital.

Keywords: Ailments; Appeal; Attitudes; Bridges; Critical; Diseases; Donations; F.N.S.; FNS; Fires; Flu epidemics; Illnesses; Mountains; Needs; Roads; Sacrifices; Sickness; Social standings; Social status; Staff members; Working

Subjects: Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Influenza

00:45:48 - Leadership of the FNS / Mary Breckinridge after her accident

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Partial Transcript: Well, is there anything we haven't talked about in relation to Mrs. Breckinridge or the Pittsburgh Committee or the organization that--that you'd like to mention that you can think of?

Segment Synopsis: Holdship discusses the changes in leadership of the Frontier Nursing Service over the years. She talks about what changes Mary Breckinridge went through after the accident that broke her back. The interview is concluded.

Keywords: Accidents; Adoration; Attitudes; Backs; Board of Governors; Board of Trustees; Bosses; Changes; Directors; Energy; Eyesight; F.N.S.; FNS; Leaders; Personality; Successors

Subjects: Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.