Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History

Interview with Sophia Howard, March 17, 1979

Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, University of Kentucky Libraries
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00:00:00 - Trading in Hyden, Kentucky

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Partial Transcript: My name is Teresa Walker and I'm interviewing Sophie Howard.

Segment Synopsis: Sophia Howard was born on Muncy's Creek in Hyden, Kentucky in 1895. She talks about when the first store was built in Hyden, and about the local mills that were used to grind corn.

Keywords: Bige Eversole; Flour barrels; Houses; Middlesboro (Ky.); Muncy's Creek (Ky.); Trading; Watermills

Subjects: Corn--Milling; Country life; General stores; Hyden (Ky.); Rural conditions; Rural roads; Transportation--Kentucky

00:02:34 - Making clothing / transportation

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Partial Transcript: What about, uh--

Segment Synopsis: Howard says everyone made their own clothing during her childhood. She talks about the forms of transportation that were available, mainly walking and riding horses.

Keywords: Clothes; Fathers; Horseback; Pete Bray; Vernon Springs; Wages; Wagons; Walking; Weaving; Wool; Young people

Subjects: Clothing and dress.; Country life; Family histories.; Rural conditions; Rural roads; Transportation--Kentucky

00:05:01 - Animals / churches

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Partial Transcript: Well, uh, were there a lot of wild animals around, you know?

Segment Synopsis: Howard talks about wild animals, as well as the hogs many families raised. She talks about making soap, banks in Hyden, and briefly describes the local churches.

Keywords: Banks; Bears; Cars; Coal mines and mining; Coal operators; Hogs; Killing; Preachers; Soap making; Washing; Wild animals

Subjects: Animals; Churches--Kentucky; Food habits--Appalachian Region, Southern; Hyden (Ky.)

00:08:25 - Cemetery

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Partial Transcript: Well could you tell me who's buried back, uh, in that old cemetery out here?

Segment Synopsis: Howard names the people who are buried in a cemetery near her home in Hyden.

Keywords: Burial; Gabbard family; Graves; Morgan family; Mosely family

Subjects: Cemeteries.; Families.; Hyden (Ky.)

00:11:05 - Marriages

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Partial Transcript: What about your husband, Tom?

Segment Synopsis: Howard talks about her first husband, Tom Bird, and his occupation. She talks about her remarriage to Levi Howard.

Keywords: Coal companies; Husbands; Land; Levi Howard; Peabody Company; Surveyors; Tom Bird; remarried

Subjects: Marriage; Occupations.

00:12:48 - More on transportation / law enforcement

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Partial Transcript: Well was there roads like this back then?

Segment Synopsis: Howard talks about the difficulty of travel in the area. She talks about law enforcement in Hyden.

Keywords: Elections; Hangings; Jails; Judges; Oxen; Sheriffs; Stores; Voting

Subjects: Country life; Hyden (Ky.); Law enforcement; Law--Kentucky; Rural conditions; Rural roads; Transportation--Kentucky

00:16:09 - Medical care / log houses / communication

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Partial Transcript: And what kind of hospitals did they have?

Segment Synopsis: Howard says there were no hospitals or doctors in Hyden during her childhood, and people mainly took care of themselves. She talks about how log houses were built, and how they were heated. She talks about the limited forms of communication available in the area.

Keywords: Communication; Dirt floors; Doctors; Fireplaces; Growth; Heat; Log houses; Marriages; Red Bird (Clay County, Ky.); Sisters; Telegraphs; Wood

Subjects: Childbirth; Country life; Hyden (Ky.); Maternal health services.; Medical care--Appalachian Region; Medicine, Rural; Midwifery--Appalachian Region; Midwives--Appalachian Region; Rural conditions; Rural health services; Telephone; Traditional medicine

00:22:50 - Frontier Nursing Service / more on transportation

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Partial Transcript: Do you remember anything about the Red Bird Hospital when it was first--

Segment Synopsis: Howard talks about some of the local hospitals, and mentions seeing Mary Breckinridge. She talks more about the difficulty of travel in the area, stating that the town of Hyden was a muddy place. The interview is concluded.

Keywords: Appearance; Horseback; Hyden Hospital; Mary Breckinridge; Muddy; Red Bird Hospital; Travel; Wagons

Subjects: Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Country life; Health facilities.; Hyden (Ky.); Medical centers; Rural conditions; Rural health services; Rural roads; Transportation--Kentucky