Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History

Interview with Phyllis Chisholm, Lillian Bartlett, May 10, 1979

Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, University of Kentucky Libraries
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00:00:01 - Changes in nursing and midwifery due to penicillin

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Partial Transcript: This is an interview with Ms. Lillian Bartlett, of the Central Midwives Board of England, and Ms. Phyllis Chisholm, director of nursing education at the West Hertfordshire School of Nursing in England...

Segment Synopsis: Chisholm and Bartlett discuss the many changes that have occurred in the field of nursing since the introduction of penicillin, including their caseload and the ability to prevent infections.

Keywords: Birthrates; Caseloads; Central Midwives Board; Changes; Director of Nursing Education; Drugs; Infections; Medication; Nurse midwives; Penicillin; Pneumonia; Prevention

Subjects: Childbirth; Maternal health services.; Medical care; Midwifery; Midwives; Nurses; Nursing

00:07:16 - Role of nurses--Part I

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Partial Transcript: Now you said earlier that I think ni--was it 1958 since you had done any mi--since you had practiced midwifery?

Segment Synopsis: Chisholm and Bartlett discuss the difference between the duties of nurses in America and in England, and discuss why they prefer the English way.

Keywords: America; Doctors; Duties; England; Family nurse practitioners (FNP); Patient care; Patients; Prevention; Responsibilities; Supervision

Subjects: Medical care; Nurses; Nursing; Physicians

00:11:01 - Nursing and midwifery training

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Partial Transcript: We'll go back to you Ms. Bartlett and have you discuss the differences or, or similarities in the way that nurse midwives are perceived in England as compared to the way they are here.

Segment Synopsis: Chisholm and Bartlett talk about the education of midwives and nurses in both America and England and discuss some of the differences between the two countries.

Keywords: America; Changes; Doctors; England; Experiences; Medical training; Methods; Responsibilities; Role of nurses

Subjects: Childbirth; Maternal health services.; Medical care; Medical education; Midwifery; Midwives; Nurses; Nursing--Study and teaching; Pregnancy

00:15:36 - Hospital versus home births

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Partial Transcript: Are--(coughs)--are most deliveries, uh, that are performed by midwives in England now in the hospital?

Segment Synopsis: Chisholm and Bartlett discuss the benefits of both home births and hospital births, and give their opinion on which they prefer. They talk about why trends have shifted from one to the other.

Keywords: Availability; Birthrates; Government involvement; Home births; Hospital births; National Health Service (NHS); Recommendations; Socialized medicine

Subjects: Childbirth; Health facilities.; Maternal health services.; Medical care; Medical centers

00:20:30 - Relationships between doctors and nurses

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Partial Transcript: With medical doctors, the relationship that you have between the doctor in England and the nurse, and the nurse midwife, uh, can you compare that to, to the relationship between the nurse, and--or the nurse midwife in America?

Segment Synopsis: Chisholm and Bartlett discuss the differences between the relationships between doctors and nurses in England and America, touching more upon the role of nurses.

Keywords: Doctors; Duties; England:America; Family nurse practitioners (FNP); General practitioners; Health Education Officers; Health Visitors; Medical training; Nurse midwives; Qualifications; Responsibilities; Working relationships

Subjects: Maternal health services.; Medical care; Midwifery; Midwives; Nurses; Nursing; Nursing--Study and teaching; Physicians

00:24:42 - Role of nurses--Part II

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Partial Transcript: Is there an, any part of the nurses--nursing training in England, or, or midwifery training--nurse midwifery training in England that is geared toward people who want to go to underdeveloped countries?

Segment Synopsis: Chisholm and Bartlett discuss the training available for nurses who wish to work in underdeveloped countries. They talk about their opinions on the role of these nurses.

Keywords: Duties; Family nurse practitioners (FNP); Medical training; Needs; Nursing abroad; Responsibilities; Role of nurses; Underdeveloped countries

Subjects: Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Medical care; Medical education; Nurses; Nursing--Study and teaching; Rural conditions; Rural health services

00:29:51 - Access to healthcare in rural areas

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Partial Transcript: Let's talk about the, uh, impression of, of a very isolated area that many people consider FNS to operate in.

Segment Synopsis: Chisholm and Bartlett talk about nurses working in rural areas, including Leslie County, Kentucky as well as parts of England and Scotland.

Keywords: Beech Fork (Ky.); Costs; Distance; England; General practitioners; Helicopters; Hyden (Ky.); Isolation; Leslie County (Ky.); Needs; Scotland; Traveling

Subjects: Appalachian Region--Social conditions; Country life; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Health facilities.; Medical care--Appalachian Region; Nurses; Nursing; Rural conditions; Rural health services

00:34:12 - Hospitals versus home visits

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Partial Transcript: Course I think one of the, one of the problems of medical care now, and I think this affects the service as we see it now and the service as it was when the FNS started...

Segment Synopsis: Chisholm and Bartlett discuss the changing trends between visiting patients in their homes to patients coming to hospitals for treatment, and discuss their opinions on which method is better.

Keywords: Acceptance; Changes; Costs; Dr. Cicely Saunders; Home visits; Hospice care; Medical training; Services; Terminal care

Subjects: Health facilities.; Hospitals; Medical care; Medical centers; Medical education; Nurses; Nursing; Nursing--Study and teaching

00:43:22 - Differences between British and American nursing

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Partial Transcript: At, at this time, how well known is the Frontier Nursing Service in England?

Segment Synopsis: Chisholm and Bartlett talk more about the differences between American and British nursing, give their opinions on which they prefer, and talk about why the methods could not be interchanged or intermingled. They discuss whether the Frontier Nursing Service has had an impact on British nursing.

Keywords: American nursing; Blood pressure; British nursing; Differences; Directives; Europe; Examinations; Horseback riding; Influence; Language barriers; Mental illness; Nurse midwives; Opinions; Pioneering; Qualifications; Spelling; Techniques; Textbooks; Traveling; Views

Subjects: Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Medical care; Medical education; Nurses; Nursing; Nursing--Study and teaching

00:54:49 - Impressions of Mary Breckinridge

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Partial Transcript: Neither of you ever met Mrs. Breckinridge?

Segment Synopsis: Chisholm and Bartlett give their impressions of Mary Breckinridge, which they have gained mostly through reading. They talk about her personality, and her devotion to the people of Leslie County. They talk about their impressions of Leslie County.

Keywords: "Forgotten Frontier"; Attitudes; Children; Coal industry; Compassion; Dirt roads; Doctors; Family connections; Films; Hard work; Hyden (Ky.); Impressions; Isolation; Kentucky; Lees family; Leslie County (Ky.); Personality; Practicality; Progress; Service

Subjects: Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Country life; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Medical care--Appalachian Region; Rural conditions; Rural health services; Rural roads

01:03:43 - More on the differences between British and American nursing

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Partial Transcript: I just picked out these little books.

Segment Synopsis: Chisholm and Bartlett talk briefly about some of the local plants they have seen while visiting America. They talk about meeting the people of Leslie County, and other Americans. They talk more about the differences between American and British nurses. Molly Lee also participates in this segment.

Keywords: America; American nursing; Attitudes; Bird-watching; British nursing; Church; Condescending; Delivery; Doctors; Expectations; Experience; Friendly; Germany; Ginseng; Impressions; Influence; Knowledge; Local people; Medical directives; Medical training; Midwifery; Nurse midwives; Outsiders; Plants; Pokeweed; Procedures; Superiority; Treatment

Subjects: Appalachian Region--Social life and customs; Country life; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Medical care--Appalachian Region; Medical education; Nurses; Nursing; Nursing--Study and teaching; Physicians

01:18:44 - Role of nurses--Part III

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Partial Transcript: Well, is, is there anything else in, in regard to midwifery, or nursing, nurse midwifery, uh, practices in England as opposed to here, or similarities that, that we haven't talked about you, you feel it's important that you should mention?

Segment Synopsis: Chisholm and Bartlett talk more about the duties of the nurse and give their opinion on the proper role of nurses. The interview is concluded.

Keywords: "Handmaidens of doctors"; Caring; Changes; Duties; Extended; Family nurse practitioners (FNP); Management; Responsibilities; Staff

Subjects: Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Medical care; Midwifery; Midwives; Nurses; Nursing