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00:00:27 - Migration to Kentucky

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Partial Transcript: This is an interview with Ninnie Shepherd for the Frontier Nurse Service Oral History Project by Sadie W. Stidham at five o’clock on April fifth, 1979 at Keavy.

Segment Synopsis: Shepherd reflects on some stories her father told her when she was a child. She remembers when her father had to ride on horseback to get wheat and flour. Then they discuss how her ancestors migrated from Virginia to Kentucky.

Keywords: Ancestors; Kentucky

Subjects: Ancestors; Childhood; Country life; Family histories.; Genealogy--Appalachian Region; Kentucky; Rural conditions

00:01:57 - Growing up on a farm

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Partial Transcript: Uh, when were, were you born?

Segment Synopsis: Shepherd reflects on her childhood in Polls Creek. She introduces some townsfolk, explains how she had fun with her brother, and lists some duties she had on the field and at home.

Keywords: Chores; Family; Farming; Leslie County (Ky.); Polls Creek (Ky.); Work

Subjects: Childhood; Chores; Country life; Families.; Farm life--Appalachian Region; Kentucky; Recreation; Rural children; Rural conditions; Subsistence farming; Traditional farming--Kentucky; Work

00:04:31 - Education in Polls Creek (Ky.)

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Partial Transcript: Uh, what kind of school did you attend?

Segment Synopsis: Shepherd describes her experience at school in Polls Creek. She attended school until the 6th grade. She went to school in a one room, box building where they wrote on slates before they received pencils (without erasers) and paper.

Keywords: One-room schools; Rural education; Schoolhouses

Subjects: Childhood; Country life; Education--History; Education--Kentucky; Kentucky; Rural children; Rural conditions; Rural schools--Kentucky; Teachers

00:07:24 - Farming and business in Polls Creek (Ky.)

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Partial Transcript: Uh, how--what--how long was a, a day's day on the farm?

Segment Synopsis: Shepherd explains how she worked on the farm when she wasn’t in school and how they grew corn, potatoes, and cane. She then talks about her father’s apple orchard and how her family also peddled their products. Shepherd also describes her old log cabin house and how they managed the winter.

Keywords: Apple orchards; Farming; Grocery stores; Log cabins; Peddling; Selling livestock; Work

Subjects: Childhood; Chores; Country life; Families.; Farm life--Appalachian Region; Farming; Kentucky; Roads--Kentucky; Rural children; Rural conditions; Subsistence economy; Subsistence farming; Traditional farming--Kentucky; Winter

00:15:00 - Polls Creek (Ky.) traditions

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Partial Transcript: Uh, when was the--can you remember when the first cars came into Polls Creek?

Segment Synopsis: Shepherd explains all the events the churches hosted in Polls Creek. The churches had regular services in the schoolhouses and under shady trees and yearly graveyard meetings.

Keywords: Churches; Graveyard meetings; House raisings; Rural communities; Schoolhouses; Stir-offs

Subjects: Appalachian Region--Religion; Community; Country life; Leslie County (Ky.); Recreation; Rural churches

00:20:59 - The Great Depression

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Partial Transcript: What about the, the Depression years? What can you remember about those hard times?

Segment Synopsis: Shepherd explains the hardships she and her family went through during the years of the Depression. Then she elaborates on a story of a man who experienced the war first hand.

Keywords: Change; Government jobs; Great Depression.; Suffering; War stories; World War I; World War II; World wars

Subjects: Depressions--1929--Kentucky; World War, 1914-1918; World War, 1939-1945

00:24:29 - The 1918 flu epidemic

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Partial Transcript: Well, how about the flu epidemic they had back in 1918? Tell me what you remember about that.

Segment Synopsis: Shepherd describes the terrible conditions of the flu epidemic in 1918 and how it killed millions of people. She also elaborates on how they decorated caskets for the deceased and had to bury them the day after they passed.

Keywords: Caskets; Coffin making; Death; Flu epidemic; Sickness

Subjects: Appalachian Region--Social conditions; Coffins; Influenza Epidemic, 1918-1919; Rural health--Kentucky

00:27:30 - Leslie County (Ky.) politics

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Partial Transcript: Alright. Well, what, what do you remember about the politics in Leslie County?

Segment Synopsis: Shepherd describes the community functions that took place during elections in Leslie County. She also points out some buildings in Leslie County and what she and her brother did for fun around town. The court and some of the things people were tried for was also mentioned.

Keywords: Bootlegging; Candidates; Court; Elections; Politics

Subjects: Candidates, Political; Community; Country life; Kentucky--Politics and government; Leslie County (Ky.); Politics, history, and culture; Recreation; United States--Trials, litigation, etc.

00:33:00 - Medical care before the Frontier Nursing Service

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Partial Transcript: Now about the, the medical, um, care in your community and, and nursing care, uh, before the Frontier Nurses.

Segment Synopsis: Shepherd explains the different tactics doctors used before the Frontier Nursing came to Kentucky. Back then, people put a lot of faith into herb doctors. Shepherd also goes into depth about the gruesome ways doctors lowered blood pressure back then.

Keywords: Doctors; Doctors in action; Giving birth; Herb doctors; High blood pressure; Treatments

Subjects: Childbirth; Country life; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Medical care--Appalachian Region; Medical care--Kentucky; Medicine, Rural; Rural conditions; Rural health services; Rural health--Kentucky; Traditional medicine

00:39:00 - Frontier Nursing Service

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Partial Transcript: Well, what do you, uh, know about the establishment of the Frontier Nursing Service there at Hyden?

Segment Synopsis: Shepherd says that the Frontier Nursing Service was the “best thing to ever come to Leslie County.” The nurses let the husbands stay for the birth and were also a lot cheaper for their services. Shepherd recalls when the nurses took a pair of twins who were disabled to the nursing home and they came back healthy.

Keywords: Babies; Cheap healthcare; Disabilities; Frontier nurses; Twins

Subjects: Childbirth; Country life; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Medical care--Appalachian Region; Medical care--Kentucky; Medicine, Rural; Rural conditions; Rural health services; Rural health--Kentucky

00:43:55 - Childhood experiences

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Partial Transcript: How did you get extra spending money when you was a girl?

Segment Synopsis: Shepherd talks about how she made money when she was a girl and how much she was paid for each crop or service. Then she describes how she took care of her livestock. Shepherd also goes into depth about the way her grandmother used to clean clothes. She finishes the interview talking about "Old Man" Ira Wells.

Keywords: Farming; Labor; Laundry; Picking fruit; Stoves; Washing clothes; Work

Subjects: Childhood; Chores; Country life; Families.; Farm life--Appalachian Region; Kentucky; Rural children; Rural conditions; Subsistence farming; Traditional farming--Kentucky