Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History

Interview with Bailey Guard, January 31, 1980

Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, University of Kentucky Libraries
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00:00:49 - Cooper and publicity

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Partial Transcript: When we stopped last time we were right about 1960.

Segment Synopsis: Guard discusses Cooper's overall publicity strategy. A Newsweek poll from 1960 is emphasized.

Keywords: Colleagues; Communications; Congress; Democrats; Elected leaders; George Aiken; Howard Baker; Image; Iowa caucuses; John Sherman Cooper; Leadership; Media; National Press Club; New York World Telegram; Newsweek magazine; Policy issues; Political campaigns; Political candidates; Polls; Presidents; Press corps; Reporters; Republicans; Richard Russell; Robert Kerr; Senate; Senators; Time Magazine

Subjects: Conservative; Henderson (Ky.); Integrity; Kentucky; Liberal; New Hampshire; Newspapers; Personality; Politicians; Press; Press releases; Publicity; Radio; Speeches; Staff; Travel; U.S. News & World Report (Firm); Washington (D.C.)

00:09:59 - Role in 1960 Senatorial campaign

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Partial Transcript: In the 1960 campaign, what role did you play in that?

Segment Synopsis: Guard describes his role in Cooper's 1960 Senatorial campaign.

Keywords: 1960 Senatorial campaign; AP News; Brown Hotel (Louisville, Ky.); Campaign managers; Constituents; Court cases; Government processes; John Sherman Cooper; Lawyers; Louie Nunn; Military drafts; Press releases; Senate; Senate payroll; Senators; World War II

Subjects: Character; Kentuckians; Kentucky; Louisville (Ky.); Newspapers; Offices; Politicians; Speeches; Staff; Travel; Veterans; Washington (D.C.); World War, 1939-1945; Writing

00:15:21 - 1960 Senatorial campaign

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Partial Transcript: This might be hard for you to answer. Other than Louie Nunn...

Segment Synopsis: Guard continues to discuss aspects of Cooper's 1960 Senatorial campaign, including important people on the local level and the elements that go into running a Republican campaign in a heavily-Democratic state. Guard also recalls Cooper's opening campaign speech.

Keywords: 1960 Senatorial campaign; Accomplishments; Brothers; Community; Court day; Decisions; Eastern Kentucky; Enos Swain; Friends; Howard Baker; John Sherman Cooper; Kentucky legislature; Louie Nunn; Political campaigns; Price supports; Public office; Reporting; Senate; Senators; Stewardship

Subjects: Articles; Budgets; Criticism; Dams; Kentuckians; Kentucky; Lancaster (Ky.); Leadership; Maine; Politicians; Public works; Radio; Responsibility; Staff; Television; Tobacco; Washington (D.C.)

00:23:47 - 1960 opening campaign speech incident

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Partial Transcript: You need to get somewhere, if you haven't already, the incident at that opening speech...

Segment Synopsis: Guard relays a controversy surrounding Cooper's opening campaign speech in 1960 in which people not associated with the campaign distributed anti-Catholic literature to attendees. Guard recalls Cooper's response and subsequent refusal to allow anti-Catholic literature to be given out at Cooper campaign events.

Keywords: 1960 Senatorial campaign; Baptists; Beliefs; Brothers; Campaign literature; Constitutional rights; Demagoguery; Editorials; Fathers; Freedom of the press; John F. Kennedy; John Sherman Cooper; Mothers; Papacy; Political campaigns; Presidency; Presidents; Public; Republican organizations; Republicans; Western Kentucky; William Henry Harrison; William Jennings Bryan

Subjects: African Americans; Ancestors; Anti-Catholicism; Black people; Catholics; Gossip; Hierarchy; Indianapolis star; Kentuckians; Kentucky; Lancaster (Ky.); Law; Politicians; Potomac River; Protestants; Radio; Radio stations; Religion and politics--Kentucky; Resentment; Rome (Italy); Sons of the American Revolution

00:32:00 - Cooper and John F. Kennedy

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Partial Transcript: Kennedy came to Kentucky to--to--uh--campaign in that election for Cooper's opponent, Keen Johnson.

Segment Synopsis: Guard assesses the friendship between Cooper and John F. Kennedy and their spouses.

Keywords: 1960 Senatorial campaign; Aid to India; Depressed Areas bill; Friends; Hubert Humphrey; Jackie Kennedy; Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis; John F. Kennedy; John Sherman Cooper; Keen Johnson; Lorraine Cooper; Newsletters; Politics; Presidents; Republicans; Secret Service; Senate bills; Senators; Social friends; White House; William Miller

Subjects: Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962; Education; Elections; Friendships; India; Kennedy, John Fitzgerald, 1917-1963; Kentuckians; Mail; Politicians; Resentment; Russia; Travel; Washington (D.C.); West Virginia

00:39:38 - Cuban Missile Crisis

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Partial Transcript: Did the Senator ever talk to you about the--the Cuban Missile Crisis?

Segment Synopsis: Guard recalls his experience with the Cuban Missile Crisis, including driving Cooper to meet John F. Kennedy to discuss the situation.

Keywords: Congress; Decisions; Foreign policy; John F. Kennedy; John Sherman Cooper; National security advisors; Nuclear exchange; Nuclear power; Presidents; Relationships; Reporters; Richard Russell; Sam Rayburn; Secretary; Secretary of Defense; Secretary of State; Thruston Morton; White house; Young people

Subjects: Afghanistan; Atlanta (Ga.); Chicago (Ill.); Children; Cold War; Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962; Denver (Colo.); Friendships; Indiana; Intervention; Kennedy, John Fitzgerald, 1917-1963; Kentucky; Opportunity; Politicians; San Francisco (Calif.); Somerset (Ky.); Soviet Union; Travel; United States. Department of Defense; United States. Department of State; Washington (D.C.)

00:49:43 - John F. Kennedy assassination / Warren Commission

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Partial Transcript: What was Senator Cooper's reaction to the assassination?

Segment Synopsis: Guard shares his and Cooper's initial reactions to Kennedy's assassination in 1963. Guard also talks of Cooper's role on the Warren Commission.

Keywords: Assassinations; Earl Warren; Eugene McCarthy; Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI); Gerald Ford; John F. Kennedy; John Sherman Cooper; Judges; News; Prosecutors; Senate; Transcripts; Warren Commission

Subjects: Kennedy, John Fitzgerald, 1917-1963; Politicians; Staff; Washington (D.C.)

00:55:30 - Cooper and civil rights

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Partial Transcript: This was about the same time--uh--that--uh--so much of the civil rights legislation was--.

Segment Synopsis: Guard considers Cooper's role in the civil rights movement.

Keywords: Beliefs; Chamber of Commerce; Churches; Confidentiality; Conflict; Connections; Constitutionality; Deep South; Friends; Influence; Jacob Javits; John Sherman Cooper; Kenneth Keating; Political campaigns; Principles; Pro-civil rights; Public places; Senate; Senate floor; Senators; Southern Kentucky; Southerners; Votes

Subjects: African Americans; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions.; Black people; Civil rights; Civil rights movement; Cumberland Gap (Ky. and Va.); Farmers; Kentucky; Labor unions; Mail; Personality; Politicians; Race discrimination.; Speeches; United States--Race relations.; Voting; Washington (D.C.)

01:07:01 - Cooper and angry constituents

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Partial Transcript: When the--uh--uh--Poor People's March on Washington, when they were camped out...

Segment Synopsis: Guard discusses how Cooper responded to angry constituents, both in the Senate and as an ambassador.

Keywords: Caste system; Confrontation politics; Eastern Kentucky; Embassy; Empathy; John Sherman Cooper; Taft-Hartley Act

Subjects: AmeriCorps (U.S.); Civil rights; Coal miners; India; Kentuckians; Kentucky; Oppression; Politicians; Poor People's Campaign; Washington (D.C.)

01:11:22 - Diversity of Cooper's staff / Public Accommodations bill

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Partial Transcript: Did the Senator--uh--hire a--um--a Black from--uh--uh--Cook's staff in Louisville?

Segment Synopsis: Guard considers the diversity of Cooper's Washington, D.C. staff, including the first African American staff member hired in the 1960s. Additionally, Guard talks of Cooper's support of the Public Accommodations bill.

Keywords: 14th amendment; Attorney General; Campaign promises; Chamber of Commerce; Congressional budget; Constituency; Constituents; Democrats; Equal protection; Hubert Humphrey; John F. Kennedy; John Sherman Cooper; Lawyers; Marlow Webster Cook; Politics; Public Accommodations bill; Receptionists; Republicans; Robert F. Kennedy; White House

Subjects: African Americans; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions.; Authority; Black people; Civil rights movement; Diversity; Labor unions; Law; Louisville (Ky.); Personality; Politicians; Race discrimination.; Staff; United States--Race relations.; Washington (D.C.)

01:19:54 - Cooper and Southern Senators

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Partial Transcript: How was his relationship at this time with the--the Southern Senators?

Segment Synopsis: Guard evaluates the dynamics between Cooper and Senators from the South.

Keywords: Constitutionality; John Sherman Cooper; Leaders; Political appointments; Relationships; Republicans; Richard Russell; Senate; Senators

Subjects: Civil rights; Integrity; Law; Politicians; Washington (D.C.)

01:23:02 - 1966 Senatorial campaign / 1960s legislation

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Partial Transcript: We could move on up to the--uh--his re-election campaign of '66.

Segment Synopsis: Guard briefly talks of his role in Cooper's 1966 Senatorial campaign. Additionally, Guard discusses some of the legislation that Cooper supported in the 1960s, including bills curbing highway advertising. The impact of these bills is also considered.

Keywords: Advertising companies; Amendments; Billboard controls; Billboard protection; Co-chairman; Constituency; Constituents; Court decisions; Discriminatory; Environmental actions; Federal presence; Industry; Influence; John Sherman Cooper; John Y. Brown Sr.; Lady Bird Johnson; Loopholes; Police powers; Political campaigns; Politics; Price supports; Ranking members; Re-election; Secretary; Senate; Senate Agricultural Committee; Senate Public Works Committee; Senate floor; Senators; Stafford bill; Votes; Zoning laws

Subjects: Billboards; Columbus (Ohio); Farmers; Kentuckians; Kentucky; Lawyers; Lobbying; Lobbyists; Michigan; Oregon; Politicians; Public works; Tobacco; Travel; Vermont; Washington (D.C.)

01:31:09 - Cooper and tobacco

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Partial Transcript: It seems to me the tobacco story is...

Segment Synopsis: Guard describes Cooper's support of tobacco legislation.

Keywords: Acreage allotments; Acreage poundage; Bills; Cigarettes; Economic interest; John Sherman Cooper; Surgeon General; Tobacco Institute

Subjects: Agriculture; Business; Health; Kentuckians; Kentucky; Kentucky Farm Bureau; Kentucky. Department of Agriculture; Leadership; Politicians; Press releases; Responsibility; Speeches; Tobacco; Tobacco farmers; Washington (D.C.)

01:35:25 - Earle Clements

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Partial Transcript: What about his relationship with Earle Clements...

Segment Synopsis: Guard discusses Cooper's working relationship with Earle Clements.

Keywords: Earle Clements; John Sherman Cooper; Leaders; Manufacturers; Marlow Webster Cook; Production figures; Senate Commerce Committee; Senators; Tax receipts; Thruston Morton; Tobacco Institute

Subjects: Advertising; Business; Clements, Earle C. (Earle Chester), 1896-1985; Lobbyists; Politicians; Press; Staff; Tobacco; Tobacco farmers; United States. Department of Agriculture; Washington (D.C.)

01:40:47 - Cooper and staff management

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Partial Transcript: By 1967, the Senator had moved onto the Foreign Relations Committee. He had hired Bill Miller as a foreign affairs expert. What changes did this bring about in the office?

Segment Synopsis: Guard illustrates how involved Cooper was with staff management at the Washington, D.C. office.

Keywords: Architect engineers; Charles Mathias; Constituents; Cooper-Church amendments; Employees; Foreign affairs; Foreign policy; Frank Church; Government contract; Grants; Influence; John Sherman Cooper; Legality; Senate; Senate Foreign Relations Committee; Senators; Sewer systems; Telephone company; William Miller

Subjects: Cicero (N.Y.); Economic development; Mafia; Management; Politicians; Public works; Secretaries; Staff; Washington (D.C.)

01:49:58 - Cooper and the Haynsworth nomination / Cooper and Marlow Cook

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Partial Transcript: I want to move on maybe if we can to--uh--November of 1969 when the Senate debated the Haynsworth nomination.

Segment Synopsis: Guard highlights Cooper's position on the controversy surrounding Clement Haynsworth's nomination for the Supreme Court in 1969. Guard also assesses the working relationship between Cooper and fellow Kentucky Senator Marlow Webster Cook.

Keywords: Articles; Clement Haynsworth; Dwight Eisenhower; G. Harrold Carswell; John Sherman Cooper; Marlow Webster Cook; Personalities; Senate; Senators; Supreme Court

Subjects: Administration; Agriculture; Cook, Marlow W. (Marlow Webster), 1926-; Kentucky Farm Bureau; Politicians; Speeches; Staff; Veto; Washington (D.C.)

01:53:59 - Pressure to run for governor / Cooper's public image

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Partial Transcript: What about the pressure on Senator Cooper to run for governor in '71?

Segment Synopsis: Guard details the pressure on Cooper from Kentucky Republicans to run for governor in the early 1970s. Additionally, Guard compares Cooper's public image to his real personality, which he says are quite similar.

Keywords: Character; Colleagues; Constituents; Eastern Kentucky; Governors; Image; John Sherman Cooper; Personalities; Pressure; Public perception; Reporters; Republicans

Subjects: India; Kentuckians; Kentucky; Personality; Politicians; Speech; Washington (D.C.)