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00:00:05 - Background and early interest in baseball

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Partial Transcript: Mr. Johnson, um, I'd like to ask you about your background and how you became interested in baseball.

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses his early interest in baseball and the first game that he attended with his father.

Keywords: Baseball games; Baseball teams; Fathers

Subjects: Baseball; Cincinnati Reds (Baseball Team); Johnson, Frederick A.; Pittsburgh Pirates (Baseball teams)

00:03:47 - Law school and baseball

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Partial Transcript: Because my father told me that the baseball contract couldn't be enforced in court.

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses his time at Yale Law School and how baseball, primarily its reserve clause, influenced his studies.

Keywords: Baseball reserve clauses; Reserve clauses; Yale Law School

Subjects: Baseball; Law

00:10:40 - Legal writings

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Partial Transcript: So I wrote a note summarizing the LaJoie case in baseball terms.

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses his legal writings and his early professional career.

Keywords: Careers; Law; Legal writings; New York Law Journal

Subjects: Johnson, Frederick A.; LaJoie, Napoleon

00:20:25 - Signing Danny Gardella as a client

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Partial Transcript: Well I hadn't been back more than about a week or ten days when I hear back from Niebauer that he's going send Danny Gardella to me...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses signing Danny Gardella as a client and how the challenge to the reserve clause began.

Keywords: Baseball; Law; Reserve clauses

Subjects: Chandler, Happy, 1898-1991; Gardella, Daniel L.; Johnson, Frederick A.

00:27:20 - The Mexican League and legal challenges

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Partial Transcript: Well, uh, I knew about the Mexican League because, um, Larry MacPhail, when he was in charge of the Yankees, had, uh, brought action...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses the Mexican League situation, previous legal issues in Major League Baseball, attempts to stop the case, and legal arguments against the reserve clause, based on the commerce clause.

Keywords: Commerce clauses; Laws; Legal actions

Subjects: Gardella, Daniel L.; Liga Mexicana de Beisbol Profesional; MacPhail, Larry, 1890-1975; Major League Baseball (Organization)

00:35:45 - Champerty and the Gardella case

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Partial Transcript: So you didn't really consider taking on any other clients.

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses champerty and how the Gardella case was challenged on that basis.

Keywords: Champerty; Gardella case

Subjects: Gardella, Daniel L.; Johnson, Frederick A.

00:38:23 - Legal strategy for the Gardella case

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Partial Transcript: Okay, you've been, you've been... what was your basic legal strategy?

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses his legal strategy in the Gardella case.

Keywords: Law; Legal strategies

Subjects: Gardella, Daniel L.; Johnson, Frederick A.

00:46:14 - Chandler's blacklisting of the Mexican League players

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Partial Transcript: Is, is, is this why in the book that Lee Lowenfish wrote that you indicated that if Landis had been commissioner...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses Chandler's decision to blacklist Mexican League players who were thought to have broken their contracts.

Keywords: Baseball contracts; Contracts; Lee Lowenfish; Mexican League

Subjects: Blacklisting; Chandler, Happy, 1898-1991; Liga Mexicana de Beisbol Profesional

00:50:39 - The Gardella case and the appellate court

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Partial Transcript: So you, you really wanted this to get into the appellate court?

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses the Gardella case and how it progressed through the legal system.

Keywords: Appellate Court; Courts; U.S. Second Circuit

Subjects: Gardella, Daniel L.; Johnson, Frederick A.

00:56:59 - Judge Landis as commissioner of baseball

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Partial Transcript: Did you know Judge Landis?

Segment Synopsis: Interviewee discusses Judge Landis as baseball commissioner, some of the differences between him and Chandler, and how Landis may have treated the Gardella case.

Keywords: Commissioners; Gardella case

Subjects: Baseball commissioners; Chandler, Happy, 1898-1991; Gardella, Daniel L.; Landis, Kenesaw Mountain, 1866-1944

01:03:28 - Happy Chandler as baseball commissioner

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Partial Transcript: So you really don't think, let, let me not put words in your mouth, but you really don't think that...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses Chandler as a commissioner and gives his opinion on how he ran Major League baseball. He also discusses how he feels the owners used Chandler.

Keywords: Gardella case

Subjects: Baseball commissioners; Baseball team owners; Chandler, Happy, 1898-1991; Gardella, Daniel L.; Major League Baseball (Organization)

01:08:40 - The reserve clause

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Partial Transcript: Let's turn to the reserve clause itself. Let me ask you a couple of questions.

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses the reserve clause in baseball, its history, and its legal basis.

Keywords: Baseball reserve clause; History; Laws; Reserve clauses

Subjects: Major League Baseball (Organization)

01:20:19 - Federal Baseball Club v. National League

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Partial Transcript: Let me ask you this. Um, it's sort of a personal type of thing.

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses a 1922 Supreme Court case that ruled that baseball was not an interstate commerce, and that the Sherman Antitrust Act did not apply to it.

Keywords: 1922 court case; Commerce; Court cases; Federal Baseball Club v. National League; Sherman Antitrust Act; Supreme Court

01:22:12 - Baseball's response to the Gardella case

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Partial Transcript: Let me go then to the cases themselves, I mean in other words...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses the Gardella case's challenging baseball's reserve clause, how Major League baseball tried to settle, and their practices.

Keywords: 1947 Court case; Cases; Court cases; Gardella v. Chandler

Subjects: Gardella, Daniel L.; Major League Baseball (Organization)

01:31:57 - Gardella's playing in Canada / baseball history

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Partial Transcript: Before I get to the, go back to the hearing again, Gardella was playing in Canada in 1949.

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses Gardella, and the other players involved in the case, and their playing in Canada and in other leagues. He also discusses early 20th century baseball history as a way of portraying how businesses were run then.

Keywords: Baseball history; Businesses; Canada; History

Subjects: Baseball; Baseball players; Gardella, Daniel L.; Major League Baseball (Organization)

01:36:47 - Chandler's rescinding the ban on Mexican League players

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Partial Transcript: In June, June 5, 1949 is when Chandler rescinded the ban on the ballplayers...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses Chandler's rescinding his ban to allow previously blacklisted Mexican League players to play again, as well as why he did so.

Keywords: Bans; Blacklisting; Mexican League

Subjects: Baseball players; Chandler, Happy, 1898-1991; Gardella, Daniel L.; Liga Mexicana de Beisbol Profesional

01:39:54 - Settling the Gardella case

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Partial Transcript: When he did return from Canada and again, before you had Chandler on the stand, it mentions in Lowenfish's book...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses the settling process in the Gardella case. He mentions that he knew he was going to have to settle the case, but wanted to force baseball to settle with him.

Keywords: Cases; Court cases; Legal Settlements; Settlements

Subjects: Chandler, Happy, 1898-1991; Gardella, Daniel L.; Johnson, Frederick A.; Major League Baseball (Organization)

01:53:07 - Commissioner Chandler on the stand

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Partial Transcript: Let me, let me take you, um, back again, just a little bit. You had Chandler on the stand...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses the Gardella hearing and Commissioner Chandler's taking the stand. He also discusses the attempts Major League baseball made to throw the case off course.

Keywords: Court cases; Gardella v. Chandler; Trials

Subjects: Baseball commissioners; Chandler, Happy, 1898-1991; Gardella, Daniel L.; Johnson, Frederick A.

02:00:09 - Settlement negotiations for the Gardella case

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Partial Transcript: Let me jump back then. Uh, let me ask you to tell me about what you can, and that's the key word, what you can, um...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses the settlement procedures between him and Major League baseball, which resulted in a $60,000 payout from baseball.

Keywords: Gardella v. Chandler; Legal settlements; Settlements

Subjects: Chandler, Happy, 1898-1991; Gardella, Daniel L.; Major League Baseball (Organization)

02:02:14 - Feelings on challenging the reserve clause

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Partial Transcript: Here you were, you were challenging the reserve clause, the thing that was near and dear to the great all-American game...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson shares his feelings on challenging the reserve clause, and how he was not challenging it internally, but externally.

Keywords: Baseball reserve clause; Gardella v. Chandler; Reserve clauses

Subjects: Baseball; Gardella, Daniel L.; Johnson, Frederick A.

02:08:22 - Legal proceedings

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Partial Transcript: So, then the key point I got from what you were saying is that the importance of...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses legal hearings that were put on the record and used in the Gardella case.

Keywords: Gardella case; Gardella v. Chandler; Hearings; Legal hearings

Subjects: Gardella, Daniel L.

02:10:24 - The player pension plan

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Partial Transcript: The pension plan had come into being, I guess as a result of, um Marty Marion and Larry MacPhail...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses his deferred payment plan, and how it may have grown into the pension plan for Major League baseball players.

Keywords: Pension plans; Player pension plan

Subjects: Baseball players; Chandler, Happy, 1898-1991; Johnson, Frederick A.; Major League Baseball (Organization)

02:15:12 - Chandler's testimony / comparison of Chandler and Landis / the power of the baseball commissioner

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Partial Transcript: Getting back to the Cellar hearings, uh, and some of the things that were raised during the testimony, you stated that...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses some of Chandler's testimony at the hearing, how he differed from Judge Landis, other issues with Chandler, and the power held by the baseball commissioner.

Keywords: Emanuel Cellar; Gardella v. Chandler

Subjects: Baseball commissioners; Chandler, Happy, 1898-1991; Durocher, Leo, 1906-1991.; Landis, Kenesaw Mountain, 1866-1944; Major League Baseball (Organization)

02:22:20 - Criticism of the Gardella case proceedings

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Partial Transcript: You, you also criticized the proceedings because they were secretive. You made an analogy to...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses the proceedings of the Gardella case and the powers of the baseball commissioner.

Keywords: Gardella v. Chandler; Legal proceedings; Proceedings

Subjects: Baseball commissioners; Gardella, Daniel L.; Johnson, Frederick A.; MacPhail, Larry, 1890-1975

02:25:57 - A modified reserve clause

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Partial Transcript: Another idea that you, you put forth that I liked, in the sense that, at least at the time that it was being put forth...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson explains his idea that star players could be kept under the reserve clause, but it would be adjusted to the category and skill of the player in question.

Keywords: Baseball reserve clause; Modified reserve clause; Reserve clauses

Subjects: Baseball players; Johnson, Frederick A.; Major League Baseball (Organization)

02:29:22 - The farm system as an interstate commerce organization

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Partial Transcript: One other thing too, with respect, I noticed that this really wasn't, um, emphasized that much...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses why he did not discuss the farm system more in the Gardella case to show that baseball was an interstate commerce organization.

Keywords: Farm system; Gardella v. Chandler; Interstate commerce

Subjects: Minor league baseball.; Rickey, Branch, 1881-1965

02:31:36 - The uniform contract

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Partial Transcript: One other thing that you mentioned--(clears throat)--or you also attacked the uniform contract.

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses the uniform player contract, and how it applied to the Mexican League.

Keywords: Contracts; Mexican League; Player contracts; Uniform contracts; Uniform player contracts

Subjects: Baseball players; Johnson, Frederick A.; Liga Mexicana de Beisbol Profesional

02:32:45 - Remembrances of baseball in the late 1940s

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Partial Transcript: In retrospect, what did you think of that period that, you know...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson reflects on the late 1940s and what he sees as being his impact and influence on Major League baseball. The interview is concluded.

Keywords: 1940s; Late 1940s

Subjects: Baseball commissioners; Johnson, Frederick A.; Major League Baseball (Organization)