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00:00:00 - Jewish Migration Pattern to Lexington

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Partial Transcript: The birds of a feather flock together normally, most of them knew each other in Lithuania.

Segment Synopsis: Gall discusses his family's immigration to Lexington and generalizes the immigration pattern for many other Jews migrating from Kovno, Gubernia, Lithuania

Keywords: Jewish Migration; Jews; Kovno Gubernia; Lexington; Lithuania; Migration

Subjects: Gall family immigration; Jewish Migration to Lexington; Kovno Gubernia

00:00:08 - Personal Background Information

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Partial Transcript: I was born in Lexington, Kentucky, April the 25th, 1917. My parents were the late Phillip and Rose far as I know they were both born in Lithuania.

Segment Synopsis: This segment consists of Sidney Gall providing details of his life and background.

Keywords: background; birthday; family; kentucky; lexington

Subjects: Gall; background

00:01:26 - Parent's immigration to Lexington

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Partial Transcript: No, no, my father originally was in Cincinnati with his father, my mother came over alone. It's impossible to believe that at the age of fourteen or fifteen she made the trip alone.

Segment Synopsis: Gall describes how his parents came to Lexington.

Keywords: cincinnati; kentucky; lithuania; migration

Subjects: Gall family migration; Leaving Lithuania

00:02:09 - Grandparent's Immigration to United States

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Partial Transcript: ...Oh yes, my mother's parents died in Europe. Both my father's parents were from Lithuania and lived in Cincinnati...(his father) came over with his mother in the late 1800s

Segment Synopsis: Gall describes how his father's parents came to the United States.

Keywords: cincinnati; family; immigration; lexington; lithuania; patterns

Subjects: Family lineage; Immigration of grandparents to US

00:03:42 - The Marriage of Sidney's Parents

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Partial Transcript: Through friends, apparently. She (his mother) went there to live with her cousin, and mutual friends knew the both of them.. and they were married for well over sixty years.

Segment Synopsis: Sidney Gall describes how his parent's met and discusses their marriage.

Keywords: Baltimore; Maryland; marriage

Subjects: Gall marriage

00:04:07 - Grandfather Isaac's Occupation - Family Business Begins

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Partial Transcript: My grandfather was also in business with my father later but my grandfather actually drove a wagon through the hills and wagons of Kentucky, his name was Isaac Gall..

Segment Synopsis: Sidney Gall tells of his Grandfather's cart business in Eastern Kentucky which subsequently began a family legacy of being businessmen.

Keywords: Gall; Kentucky; business; cart

Subjects: Cart business; Family business

00:06:54 - Tracing Age and Lineage via Jewish Tradition

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Partial Transcript: He knew how old he was because he was eleven years old when so and so was bar mitzvah..

Segment Synopsis: Sidney Gall explains how many Jewish families used to determine their age and birth dates.

Keywords: bar mitzvah; birthday; jewish tradition

Subjects: bar mitzvah; determining birth date

00:08:21 - Details of Phillip Gall's Business

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Partial Transcript: It was a very small business, in those days you could go into business if you had two or three hundred dollars..

Segment Synopsis: Sidney Gall discusses his father's business including details on its varying locations.

Keywords: business; phillip gall's; vine street; water street

Subjects: Phillip Gall's; family business

00:09:40 - Father and Son Business Partnership

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Partial Transcript: And then when I came back from the army in 1946, my father and I went into partnership with the store and it was then Phillip Gall and Son..

Segment Synopsis: Sidney Gall explains how he came into partnership with his father in business and explains what type of store they ran.

Keywords: business; downtown lexington; lexington; partnership; phillip gall

Subjects: Phillip Gall and Son; family partnership

00:10:49 - Reflections on Childhood

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Partial Transcript: Well all my childhood, and I have two sisters by the way, most everything I remember about my childhood was very happy..

Segment Synopsis: Gall reflects on his childhood in retrospect.

Keywords: childhood; family; jewish; lexington

Subjects: Childhood; Growing up in Lexington

00:12:01 - Reflections on Siblings

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Partial Transcript: One sister is Evelyn Freyman, she lives in Washington D.C., if she were a man, she could have been the first Jewish president of the United States.

Segment Synopsis: Gall tells of his sisters.

Keywords: childhood; gall; kentucky; lexington; siblings

Subjects: Childhood; Siblings

00:12:44 - Early Education

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Partial Transcript: I went to school first at a school that was torn down, not because I went there, I attended Johnson School..

Segment Synopsis: Gall shares his memories of schooling in Lexington.

Keywords: education; johnson; lexington; lexington junior high

Subjects: Gall's Education

00:13:24 - Phillip Gall and the Establishment of a Synagogue

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Partial Transcript: One of the twelve to fifteen men who started..

Segment Synopsis: Gall tells of his father's involvement in a local synagogue.

Keywords: gall; kentucky; lexington; synagogue; west maxwell

Subjects: Phillip Gall as a founder of a local synagogue

00:18:51 - Childhood Celebration of Jewish Holidays

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Partial Transcript: In those days it was not celebrations for various Jewish holidays the way we do it today..

Segment Synopsis: Gall explains how holidays were celebrated in his childhood and elaborates on the differences he has noticed as an adult.

Keywords: childhood; holidays; jewish; jewish holidays

Subjects: Childhood; Jewish Holidays

00:19:42 - How Ohavay Zion Has Changed

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Partial Transcript: The synagogue, the sanctuary, was exactly the same..

Segment Synopsis: Gall elaborates on the changes that occurred in his congregation.

Keywords: Joe Bologna; Ohavay Zion; Sanctuary; judaism; religion

Subjects: Ohavay Zion; Sanctuary Changes

00:22:39 - Size of Ohavay Zion

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Partial Transcript: I would say that the synagogue was full to overflowing on major holidays.

Segment Synopsis: Gall elaborates on the size of his congregation and where the members came from.

Keywords: corbin; enrollment; lexington; size of ohavay zion

Subjects: Members of Ohavay Zion

00:27:13 - Introduction to Gall's Military Service

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Partial Transcript: I went in the army.. but I was one of the few in the army that you have't met before.

Segment Synopsis: Gall introduces the interviewer to his military service experience.

Keywords: army; counterintelligence; experience; intelligence; military

Subjects: Counterintelligence Experience; Military Service

00:32:10 - Details of Military Service

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Partial Transcript: What our jobs were primarily the safeguarding, safeguarding military information..

Segment Synopsis: Gall provides details of his responsibilities working with counterintelligence in the Army.

Keywords: G2; army; military counterintelligence

Subjects: Counterintelligence; Military Service

00:40:04 - The Jewish Home

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Partial Transcript: After five years here, we decided we couldn't keep kosher..

Segment Synopsis: Gall explains that the family did not keep kosher yet maintained a religious household.

Keywords: children; diet; jewish diet; kosher

Subjects: Raising Children Religiously; The Kosher Diet

00:46:33 - Being Jewish in Kentucky

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Partial Transcript: I can't answer that the way the question is posed..we all knew we were Jewish, there is always someone who will allude to the fact that you are Jewish.

Segment Synopsis: Gall describes his opinion on what it is like to be Jewish in Kentucky.

Keywords: discrimination; jewish; kentucky; prejudice

Subjects: Jewish Life; discrimination; prejudice

00:48:00 - Anti-Semitism in Lexington and the Military

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Partial Transcript: I did not feel it personally, I cannot say that others did not. Because people knew that with me you don't play those games, consequently I don't imagine I had it. I only had it in the army once..

Segment Synopsis: Gall poses his answer to the question of any anti-semitism he has faced.

Keywords: antisemitism; military discrimination; prejudice

Subjects: Modern Anti-Semitism

00:58:28 - Racism in 1950s Lexington

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Partial Transcript: I was the first man who hired a black at a white colored job in the city of Lexington, that's before it became fashionable.

Segment Synopsis: Gall tells an anecdote in which he hires an African-American, much to the chagrin of many in Lexington.

Keywords: african americans; lexington racism; racism

Subjects: Racism towards African Americans; fair hiring practices

01:14:22 - Great Depression in Lexington

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Partial Transcript: Well, it was a very tough era. You worked many hours to make few dollars to keep your family together.

Segment Synopsis: Gall reflects on the Great Depression and the struggles which arose from it.

Keywords: depression; great depression; kentucky; lexington

Subjects: Great Depression; family sacrifices

01:19:00 - Wanting and Needing During the Great Depression

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Partial Transcript: My father looked at me once and said why don't you go and buy yourself a suit...until I looked at my father's coat and it was threadbare all around and I said Papa you go buy a suit..

Segment Synopsis: Gall tells a touching story of his father offering to buy him a suit during the depression, even though his own clothes were deteriorating.

Keywords: depression; great depression

Subjects: A Father's Sacrifice; Life in the Great Depression

01:20:19 - Jewish Perseverance Through Depression

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Partial Transcript: I'll say this of the Jewish families that I knew in Lexington..they all got by.

Segment Synopsis: Gall explains how strong Jewish families in Lexington remained despite incredibly trying economic times.

Keywords: Judaism; great depression; jewish; kentucky; lexington

Subjects: Jewish Community Overcoming Adversity

01:49:36 - Investigating Nazi Apologists in the Military

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Partial Transcript: Would you like to hear the story of what went on in Bloomington, Indiana in the war?

Segment Synopsis: Gall discusses an interesting case he worked on during his service dealing with discrimination within the military.

Keywords: europe; german; greek; jewish; military; nazi

Subjects: Nazi sympathy by soldiers in the US