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00:00:01 - Family education

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Partial Transcript: I'm Colonel Arthur L. Kelly.

Segment Synopsis: Walker describes his family and their educational backgrounds. He notes how his siblings went to different universities and colleges. He notes how he himself did not go to college, noting that the African American community at the time was skeptical of post-high school education. He describes his elementary school experience, as well as his high school life at a boarding school for African Americans.

Keywords: All-black boarding schools; Arthur L. Kelly; Colleges; Education; Family acceptance of education; Paul Walker; Springfield (Ky.); State colleges; Universities; Washington County (Ky.); Western University

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.

GPS: Springfield (Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 37.685185, -85.222027
00:03:17 - State of Kentucky schools since the end of the Civil War

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Partial Transcript: Well, and, and, uh--clears throat--High Street was sort of the black community of Springfield.

Segment Synopsis: Walker discusses the history of Kentucky schools since the end of the Civil War. He notes how compared to elsewhere in the South, Kentucky schools remained integrated through the nineteenth century until 1904. He discusses how northerners came down to establish schools such as Berea College. He discusses living in Springfield. He then notes the creation of the 1904 Day Law which segregated education in Kentucky. He also credits Julius Rosenwald of Sears and Roebuck in funding African American schools in Kentucky during the Depression.

Keywords: 1904 Day Laws; Arthur L. Kelly; Berea College; Integration; Julius Rosenwald; Kentucky Day Laws; Kentucky schools; Paul Walker; Rosenwald schools; Segregation; Springfield (Ky.); Washington County (Ky.)

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.

GPS: Berea College (Berea, Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 37.572566, -84.290761
00:10:21 - Black attitudes towards education

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Partial Transcript: Well now, let me just talk a little bit about that, and then we'll--I will try to get back to you.

Segment Synopsis: Walker discusses African American attitudes towards education, noting how highly educated black teachers were. However, he focuses on the intersection of religion and education. In particular, he expands on the prominence of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church in the local black community as a site for many of the most educated in the African American community.

Keywords: AME Zion Church; African American attitudes towards education; African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church; Arthur L. Kelly; Black teachers; Paul Walker; Rosenwald schools; Springfield (Ky.); Washington County (Ky.)

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.

00:14:28 - Connection of drop out rates with job access

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Partial Transcript: Um, we were talking about the attitude of those, uh--the high school kids, uh, the blacks, in, in the public schools...

Segment Synopsis: Walker describes the drop out rate in African American high schools. He notes how job access determined the amount of people who would leave school to join the workforce. He discusses how thirty-five to forty graduated from his own class of sixty-seven in 1948. He lists notable families. He once again expands on the importance of the AME Zion Church.

Keywords: AME Zion Church; African Americans and education; African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church; Alfred Nichols; Arthur L. Kelly; High school drop out rates; High school graduation rates; Job access; Job prospects; Notable black families; Paul Walker; Springfield (Ky.); Washington County (Ky.)

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.

00:22:13 - Importance of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church

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Partial Transcript: Now, how many of them completed high school?

Segment Synopsis: Though asked about college attendance rates among African Americans, Walker instead elects to discuss the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. He notes three locations within Springfield, Kentucky where the AME Zion Church has locations. He discusses people leaving the church, except for him and a few others.

Keywords: AME Zion Church; African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church; Arthur L. Kelly; Paul Walker; Spring AME Zion churches; Springfield (Ky.); Washington County (Ky.)

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.

00:26:49 - African Americans serving in the military

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Partial Transcript: Let's do this, let's, let's get on this, uh, direction here just a minute.

Segment Synopsis: Walker discusses various African Americans he knew who served in the military. He describes their service in the Korean and Vietnam conflicts. He also notes what commendations and medals they received. When asked if anyone died, he notes that he cannot recall if any died in combat.

Keywords: African American soldiers; Arthur L. Kelly; Billy Wright; Bobby Burton; Bronze star; Butch Dawson; Johnny Walker; Korean War; Paul Walker; Silver star; Vietnam; William Dawson; William Francis Johnson

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.

00:36:05 - Army recruiting wrongly accused African Americans with criminal records during World War II

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Partial Transcript: Uh, before that happened, uh, a number of people in 1939, um, who you might know...

Segment Synopsis: Walker discusses the Army's practice of recruiting African Americans with criminal records during the Second World War. Walker notes that while some were convicted for murder, most were just young men who had been charged with crimes mostly for being black, such as selling moonshine, chicken, or taking rotten food out of a dumpster. Walker discusses how in the 1930s and 1940s, almost every African American had a record due to Jim Crow laws over criminalizing and over-punishing African Americans for minor offenses.

Keywords: African American soldiers; Arthur L. Kelly; Chickens; Criminal records; Ed Dawes; Great Depression; Joe Clark; Moonshine; Murderers; Overcriminizalization; Paul Walker; Selling chickens; Selling moonshine; Soldiers with criminal records; United States Army; WWII; World War II

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.

00:44:24 - Will Lockett incident

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Partial Transcript: Colonel Arthur Kelly, in Springfield, Kentucky--(clears throat)--talking to Joe Paul Walker, uh, a black, uh, oral historian to say the least.

Segment Synopsis: Walker discusses the Will Lockett case in the 1920s, where a World War I veteran was threatened by a lynch mob while in prison. He notes how the National Guard had to be called to protect him while he awaited trial.

Keywords: 1920s; Arthur L. Kelly; Black World War I veterans; Lynching cases; Mob violence; National Guard; Paul Walker; Preventing lynching; Racial violence; Will Lockett; World War I veterans

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.; World War, 1914-1918

GPS: Kentucky State Penitentiary (Eddyville, Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 37.048111, -88.076387
00:47:34 - Interracial relationships during segregation

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Partial Transcript: My, my, grandfather's father was Mr. Bosley, and he was a white man.

Segment Synopsis: Walker discusses the occurrence of mixed race relationships even during the segregation period. He notes his own family, where his great-grandfather was white and his great-grandmother was an African American, leading to a grandfather whom he notes was almost white. He also uses the example of a white lawyer who had two black children by an African American woman, and despite not marrying her, helped his two children in their education.

Keywords: African American mothers; Arthur L. Kelly; Enslaved families; Family histories; Interracial relationships; Mixed race; Mixed race families; Montgomery families; Paul Walker; Segregation; Walker family; White fathers

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.

GPS: Springfield, Kentucky, county seat of Washington County (Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 37.685185, -85.222027
00:52:10 - Incidents of racial violence in Washington County

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Partial Transcript: Well, let me get you back on that, on that, uh, lynching business again. Do you know of any instances in Washington County?

Segment Synopsis: Walker discusses incidents of racial violence and lynchings in his home county of Washington County. He notes his own relative's actions in leading a second Underground Railroad in the 1930s to the 1950s to move African American men out of Kentucky into the north. He then describes various examples and situations such as John Ellison, who disappeared into the north following a false rape accusation. Others he acknowledges escaped to Indiana and Philadelphia. Walker describes how the charges were always fraudulent claims of sexual impropriety. He discusses an anecdote involving a man being denied access to Greyhound buses after an incident.

Keywords: 1930s; Accusations of sexual impropriety; Arthur L. Kelly; Escaping segregation; Fleeing north; Greyhound bus incident; Hearsay; Jim Crow; John Ellison; Lynchings; Paul Walker; Racial violence; Ray Walker; Segregation; Underground Railroad; Washington County (Ky.)

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.

GPS: Springfield, Kentucky, county seat of Washington County (Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 37.685185, -85.222027
00:58:10 - Notable local African American families

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Partial Transcript: Okay, well, let's back get to the biographies on some of the outstanding blacks on High Street.

Segment Synopsis: Walker discusses notable African American families in Washington County. He notes the Nichols family of businessmen and doctors, as well as the Mudd family. Eventually, Walker describes his own family, who achieved some fame in the Kentucky horse business.

Keywords: African American families; Arthur L. Kelly; Kentucky horse industry; Mudd family; Nichols family; Paul Walker; Springfield (Ky.); Walker family; Washington County (Ky.)

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.

01:04:26 - Family's involvement in the Kentucky horse industry

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Partial Transcript: Well, let me just run back that line. Let's go back and do the horse trainers in the black community.

Segment Synopsis: Walker discusses his own family's involvement in the Kentucky horse industry. He discusses his grandfather's role as a horse trainer at an unnamed farm in Georgetown. He follows this by discussing his uncle's work at Calumet Farm training horses. His father he also describes as having worked with horses at Calumet thanks to his brother's influence.

Keywords: African Americans in the Kentucky horse industry; Arthur L. Kelly; Calumet farms; Georgetown (Ky.); Kentucky horse farms; Kentucky horse industry; Lexington (Ky.); Paul Walker; Walker family

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.

GPS: Calumet Farm (Lexington, Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 38.049009, -84.578951
01:08:18 - Recognition of black identity / African American role models

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Partial Transcript: When did you know you were black, so to speak?

Segment Synopsis: Walker discusses when he first realized that he was black and what that meant in terms of what he could do in the American South. He relates his treatment by a police officer when he and a friend were driven by a white woman. Walker also discusses black role models during the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s, as all of the children wanted to be Joe Louis during his childhood, while twenty years later the role model became Jackie Robinson.

Keywords: African American community; African American identity; African American role models; Anecdotes; Arthur L. Kelly; Black identity; Civil Rights movement; Jackie Robinson; Joe Louis; Paul Walker; Springfield (Ky.)

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.

GPS: Frankfort (Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 38.200741, -84.872091
01:17:05 - Reaction to major Civil Rights events

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Partial Transcript: When, when, when they had the, uh, the big events that occurred, you know, at Selma, Alabama, and then, the murder of those civil rights people in--

Segment Synopsis: Walker notes that the general reaction to the major Civil Rights events in Kentucky was to focus on local level issues. He notes the different racial attitudes throughout Kentucky, as well as his own awareness of racial difference. He briefly notes his involvement in construction and contracting. Walker credits educated whites, whom he claims treated African Americans better than poor whites.

Keywords: Arthur L. Kelly; Civil Rights Era; Civil Rights Movement; Construction; Contracting; Educated whites; Local civil rights movements; Mississippi; Paul Walker; Racial attitudes; Racism; Selma (Ala.)

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.

GPS: Selma (Ala.)
Map Coordinates: 32.408952, -87.021458
01:21:20 - African American community's attitudes towards whites before, during, and after integration

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Partial Transcript: Let me try to get from you if I can, and maybe I can't, I mean nobody can speak for everybody, but speaking for a community as best as you can--(clears throat)--

Segment Synopsis: Walker describes African Americans' perceptions and attitudes of whites during the integration process. He focuses on the expansion of jobs and opportunities during the integration period. He notes the example of train operator Jim Grundy and two men from Cleveland. He affirms that this moment was significant for the black community. [The tape cuts out and gets replaced by the end of the segment.]

Keywords: African American attitudes towards whites; After integration; Arthur L. Kelly; Before integration; During integration; Impact of new jobs on black community; Integration; Jim Grundy; Jobs; Paul Walker; Racial attitudes

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.

01:28:34 - Integration in the 1960s

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Partial Transcript: Okay, we're in Springfield, Kentucky, March, the twenty-ninth, of nineteen hundred and ninety.

Segment Synopsis: [The tape is restarted a third time.] Walker describes the state of integration in the 1960s. He discusses the opening of jobs and colleges to African Americans. He postulates how opportunities will continue into the next century, as well as compares African American productivity in the workforce to the Japanese.

Keywords: 1960s; Arthur L. Kelly; Impact of integration on colleges; Impact of integration on jobs; Integration; Japan; Paul Walker; The year 2000; Vietnam

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.

01:35:34 - Issues with the welfare system

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Partial Transcript: Do you think, uh--evaluate welfare for me.

Segment Synopsis: Walker expresses his concerns over the current (as of 1990) welfare system, though he does not go into specifics about which specific programs he has problems with. He simply says that there are issues with the system, and that it leads to further social issues in the black community.

Keywords: Adoptions; African American community; African Americans and welfare; Arthur L. Kelly; Complaints about welfare system; Paul Walker; Welfare Reform Bill; Welfare system

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.

01:38:52 - The historic origins of African American social issues

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Partial Transcript: On, on the business of, of the unwed mothers, the change in the percentage...

Segment Synopsis: Walker traces many of the social problems plaguing the black community back to their origins during slavery or during segregation. He discusses how unmarried mothers and single-parent homes developed from the tearing apart of families during slavery, as fathers would be sold away from their wives and children. He also notes the prominence of drugs in the black community as a response to being denied loans from banks, as a way to make money along with the lottery and selling moonshine.

Keywords: "Reefer"; African American community; Arthur L. Kelly; Bank loan discrimination; Bank loans; Cocaine; Drugs; Free love; Historical impact of slavery; Lottery; Marijuana; Moonshine; Paul Walker; Single parent homes; Slavery; Social issues; Unmarried mothers; Unmarried women; Woodstock

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.

01:46:00 - Successes of the Civil Rights Movement

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Partial Transcript: How would you evaluate Civil Rights, uh, the, the value of Civil Rights to the black community?

Segment Synopsis: Walker considers the successes of the Civil Rights Movement twenty years following the signing of the Civil Rights Bill of 1965. He notes that no group has grown or improved as much as African Americans have since 1965. He discusses how this was not a long time ago. He also provides anecdotes about this twenty-five year period since the passage of the Civil Rights Act.

Keywords: African American community; Anecdotes; Arthur L. Kelly; Civil Rights Bills of 1965; Civil Rights Movement; Civil Rights movement successes; Paul Walker

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.

01:51:06 - Importance of spirituality / Walker's children

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Partial Transcript: And I was wondering--(clears throat)--if, uh, during the slavery days, if the blacks could learn something...

Segment Synopsis: Walker discusses the coping mechanisms African Americans turned to in order to survive their experiences under slavery. Walker notes that there was a common acceptance that violence would not work. Instead, Walker describes the prominence of spirituality. Walker also describes his own family, including his nine children with his wife, who he describes as the rock of the entire Walker clan. Walker ends the segment noting that Springfield has grown a lot, and that he has no regrets.

Keywords: Arthur L. Kelly; Children; Children's futures; Family structure; Paul Walker; Paul Walker's father; Resistance; Resistance to slavery; Slavery; Spirituality; Springfield (Ky.); Violence; Washington County (Ky.)

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.

GPS: Springfield (Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 37.685185, -85.222027
02:05:15 - Grandfather's music career / Family history during slavery

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Partial Transcript: Did this guy who wrote that music, did he ever do any music, uh, professionally?

Segment Synopsis: Walker discusses his grandfather, noting his time as a professional musician. He also describes the labor his grandfather performed in pulling hemp. Walker notes that his grandfather eventually lived in Owensboro with his own grandfather's slaves.

Keywords: African American musicians; Agricultural labor; Anecdotes; Arthur L. Kelly; Family histories; Hemp; Hemp pulling; Owensboro (Ky.); Paul Walker; Professional music; Slavery

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.

GPS: Owensboro (Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 37.771283, -87.102925
02:10:03 - Family anecdotes about slavery

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Partial Transcript: Have you--did you ever hear any, any stories about kind of stories about, uh, slavery?

Segment Synopsis: Walker is asked about any stories he remembers from his grandfather about his ancestors' experiences under slavery, which Walker admits he cannot recall. However, he does discuss the nature and state of slavery in Kentucky prior to emancipation. He discusses the creation of free African American communities across the South, which helped build social connections and bonds.

Keywords: African American communities; Anecdotes; Anecdotes about slavery; Arthur L. Kelly; Black communities; Cotton; Emancipated African Americans; Family anecdotes; Family connections; Family histories; Kentucky slavery; Kentucky slavery compared to rest of south; Lexington (Ky.); Lexington slavery; Paul Walker; Slavery

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.

GPS: Cheapside, Lexington (Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 38.048359, -84.497865
02:15:48 - African Americans in the Kentucky horse industry / Local notable African Americans

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Partial Transcript: Some of the people that my grandfather trained for work, are now owners.

Segment Synopsis: Walker describes the advances of African Americans in the Kentucky horse industry. He acknowledges that he has little knowledge of the industry apart from his family connections, but notes that African Americans are no longer just trainers but also owners who were able to buy and sell horses, thereby becoming business owners. He uses this to lead into the advancements in the black community following the return of soldiers from World War II, including himself who became one of the first black football coaches.

Keywords: African Americans; African Americans during Civil Rights movement; African Americans in horse industry; Arthur L. Kelly; Black business owners; Blacksmiths; First black football coach; Horse owners; Horse training; Horses; Kentucky horse industry; Mechanics; Notable local African Americans; Paul Walker; World War II

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.; World War, 1939-1945

02:28:19 - Playing football at Rosenwald School

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Partial Transcript: And when you were with the, the school that opened, Rose--

Segment Synopsis: Walker discusses being a quarterback at a Rosenwald school in high school. He discusses the various schools and towns he and his team visited to play games. He notes that his team was not limited to only playing black schools. He also goes on a tangent about the Spanish Flu epidemic following World War I.

Keywords: African American high schools; Arthur L. Kelly; Bardstown (Ky.); Football; Frankfort (Ky.); Harlan County (Ky.); Kentucky high schools; Lincoln; Paul Walker; Quarterback; Rosenwald; Rosenwald schools; Rosenwald schools football; Spanish flu; State Street

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.

02:33:18 - State of African American families as of 1990

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Partial Transcript: Well, how are the blacks doing now in Washington County as far as you're concerned?

Segment Synopsis: Walker describes the state of African American families as of 1990, noting that younger people have moved away from Springfield. He discusses his own mixed race family background as a way to denote the extreme diversity in the black community, even in one family. He describes his friends who have traveled and visited many places in the world thanks to the army's integration policies.

Keywords: African American community; African American families; African Americans; Army integration; Arthur L. Kelly; Differences in black community; Mixed race; Paul Walker; State of race relations; Walker family

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.

02:39:21 - Enduring scars of slavery on the African American community

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Partial Transcript: But, I've noticed talking to some of the kids up at, uh, Kentucky State University--(clears throat)--that some of them feel like there is still a scar from, uh, having been black, from--coming from the slavery, uh, past...

Segment Synopsis: Walker describes the current pains in the African American community as a result of their experience under slavery. However, he offers the suggestion to move forward as a community, noting his disagreement with African Americans focusing too much on the injuries of the past. He argues that this takes time and energy that could be spent elsewhere. He compares the current state of the black community to 1965 to note the strides taken. He describes his philosophy as being akin to seeing himself as a person or an African American specifically.

Keywords: 1990; African American community; Arthur L. Kelly; Impact of slavery; Looking forward; Opinions; Paul Walker; Race in 1990; Racial hatred; Remnants of slavery

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.

02:43:00 - Race relations in Washington County

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Partial Transcript: Well, let me put it this way: In Washington County, how many--how, uh, how is that attitude of the black--

Segment Synopsis: Walker speaks to the current state of racial harmony in his hometown of Washington County, as of 1990. He notes that his children do not see race and treat people as people, however, he acknowledges that this was not the case for everyone. He discusses how there are some who "hate" white people, which he criticizes as a "cop out." He discusses his interest in seeing the African American community move forward. Walker continues with his concerns and critiques of the black community until the interview ends.

Keywords: Arthur L. Kelly; Housing boards; Moving forward; Opinions; Paul Walker; Police officers; Race relations; Racial harmony; Springfield (Ky.); Washington County (Ky.)

Subjects: African American churches; African American churches--Kentucky; African American college graduates--Kentucky; African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Civil rights--Kentucky; African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Education (Higher); African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Recreation; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions--1964-1975.; African Americans--Social conditions--1975-; African Americans--Social conditions--To 1964.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; Childhood; Education; Race relations--Kentucky--Lexington; United States--Race relations.

GPS: Springfield, Kentucky, county seat of Washington County (Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 37.685185, -85.222027