Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History

Interview with Stephen C. Cawood, February 8, 1991

Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, University of Kentucky Libraries
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00:00:07 - Local community leaders

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Partial Transcript: Well the last thing that we were talking about were is some of the conflicts that arose, um, because a lot of the...

Segment Synopsis: Cawood discusses how the War on Poverty helped create community leaders like Eula Hall.

Keywords: Community leaders; Impact; Local volunteers; Outside volunteers; War on Poverty

Subjects: Hall, Eula, 1927-

00:05:15 - AVs split from Council of the Southern Mountains

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Partial Transcript: I was wondering if you were around or heard much about the, um, the split, um, of the AVs from the Council of the Southern Mountains...

Segment Synopsis: Cawood discusses the background of the Council of the Southern Mountains and their split from the Appalachian Volunteers.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers (AVs); Council of the Southern Mountains (CSM); Generational differences; History; Loyal Jones; Philosophical differences; Roles

Subjects: Appalachian Region; Berea (Ky.); Berea College

00:09:41 - Appalachian Volunteers lack of understanding the politics in eastern Kentucky

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Partial Transcript: The other, the other--which was--could be a little bit later than this, um, was there was--I guess the records show...

Segment Synopsis: Cawood talks about the lack of understanding of the politics of Appalachia, specifically mentioning Harlan County, Kentucky and Jim Cawood.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers (AVs); Eastern Kentucky; Evolution; Impact; Jim Cawood; Lack of understanding; Local power structures; Political power; Politics; School superintendents; United Mine Workers (UMW)

Subjects: Harlan County (Ky.); Social reformers--Appalachian Region

00:21:36 - Influence on his life

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Partial Transcript: And don't take--I, I hope I'm not coming across as just negative about the AV experience because...

Segment Synopsis: Cawood talks about how his experiences with the Appalachian Volunteers and War on Poverty influenced his life.

Keywords: Cross-cultural experience; Exposure; Involvement in legal services

00:24:55 - AppalReD origins

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Partial Transcript: Um, well, tell me a little bit about the founding of, um, AppalRed.

Segment Synopsis: Cawood talks about establishing AppalReD, a region wide legal services organization.

Keywords: Appalachian Research and Defense Fund; Funding; Larry Greathouse; Legal services; Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO); Paul Kauffman; Presbyterian Board of Admissions

Subjects: Appalachian region; Barbourville (Ky.)

00:31:11 - Getting established in the community

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Partial Transcript: Once you had the, um, office open did you have trou--did you have continuing troubles with...

Segment Synopsis: Cawood talks about having to sell AppalRed to the community and to the private bar.

Keywords: AppalReD; Larry Greathouse; Legal services; Private bar (legal profession); Selling

Subjects: Lawyers--Kentucky

00:34:31 - Community Action Technician

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Partial Transcript: So is that office still there? In Barbourville?

Segment Synopsis: Cawood talks about working as a Community Action Technician for the Council of the Southern Mountains at the beginning of the War on Poverty. He talks about travelling, mainly in eastern Kentucky, helping organizations write applications for OEO programs.

Keywords: Anti-poverty programs; Community Action Programs; Council of the Southern Mountains; Georgia Moon; Impact; Local community leaders; Moonshiners; North Georgia; OEO; Outreach work

Subjects: Appalachian Region; United States Office of Economic Opportunity

00:41:32 - Local community leaders / cultural clashes / impact of the McSurelys

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Partial Transcript: Would you say that those groups that, um, that were run by the Eula Halls...

Segment Synopsis: Cawood talks about local community activists and leaders like Eula Hall. He goes on to talk about the cultural clashes that the Appalachian Volunteers experienced while in Appalachia. He talks about how the actions of the McSurelys helped to discredit the Appalachian Volunteers in Pike County, Kentucky.

Keywords: Accusations; Al and Margaret McSurely; Anti-communist; Appalachian Volunteers (AVs); Communism; Cultural differences; Eastern Kentucky; Eula Hall; Impact; Local activists; Patriotism; Sedition cases; The McSurelys

Subjects: Appalachians (People); Harlan County (Ky.); Pike County (Ky.)

00:54:38 - Wife's involvement in strip mining protest

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Partial Transcript: Were you ever in a dangerous situation?

Segment Synopsis: Cawood talks about his wife's involvement in a anti-strip mining protest in Perry County, Kentucky, mentioning that it was a tense situation.

Keywords: Eastern Kentucky; Jim Branson; Kentucky State Police; Larry Greathouse; Radical; Violence

Subjects: Coal mines and mining--Kentucky--Perry County

00:59:16 - Hogue Grails (??) / Bill Worthington / Joe Scopel

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Partial Transcript: I'll tell you another one, I mentioned Jim Cawood and all that a while ago...

Segment Synopsis: Cawood shares stories about Hogue Grails, including the first time he met Hogue Grails who threatened him with a shotgun because Grails thought he was related to Jim Cawood. He also talks mentions Grails relationship with another Appalachian Volunteer named Bill Worthington. He goes on to talk about a man named Joe Scopel, who along with Grails and Worthington supported Joseph "Jock" Yablanski.

Keywords: Bill Worthington; Hogue Grails (??); Jim Cawood

Subjects: Coal miners--Labor unions--Kentucky; Harlan County (Ky.); Yablonski, Joseph A., 1910-1969.

01:07:40 - AVs clash with Appalachians over Vietnam War

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Partial Transcript: Well, well there's really--there's two other issues that I wanted to ask you about. Um, one is, um, one is that...

Segment Synopsis: Cawood talks about the clash between AVs who were critical of the Vietnam War and the local community who supported the war, mentioning that it caused people to alienate the AVs.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers (AVs); Cultural differences; Impact; Patriotism

Subjects: Appalachian Region; Vietnam War, 1961-1975

01:13:30 - Women Appalachian Volunteers and VISTAs

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Partial Transcript: Well the other issue, somewhat related I guess, is, is, uh, I, I've interviewed a fair number of, of women...

Segment Synopsis: Cawood talks about the different types of women who were AVs and VISTAs mentioning that some created cultural barriers between them and the locals.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers (AVs); Cultural differences; Eula Hall; Judy Martin; Mud Creek; Outsiders; VISTAs; Women

Subjects: Appalachians (People)--Kentucky--Social conditions; Floyd County (Ky.)

01:21:19 - Final thoughts

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Partial Transcript: I know I've probably worn you out here, but, um, do you feel like there are any issues that I haven't covered...

Segment Synopsis: Cawood shares some final thoughts and mentions running into an Appalachian Volunteer while he was in Boston, Massachusetts.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers (AVs); Boston (Mass.)