Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History

Interview with Loyal Jones, March 15, 1991

Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, University of Kentucky Libraries
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00:00:02 - Early reformers in eastern Kentucky

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Partial Transcript: This is an oral history interview with Loyal Jones for the University of Kentucky War on Poverty in Appalachia Kentucky Oral History Project.

Segment Synopsis: Jones talks about the early reformers in the area during the War on Poverty. He also talks about the early Appalachian Volunteers and how they gradually became more radical.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers (AVs); Criticisms; Harry Caudill; Pat Gish; Radicals; Tom Gish

Subjects: Social reformers--Appalachian Region

00:05:41 - Roving pickets

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Partial Transcript: Who was involved in, in those roving pickets?

Segment Synopsis: Jones talks about the roving pickets movement in eastern Kentucky coalfields. He talks about the Council of the Southern Mountains involvement in the movement and relations with the UMWA.

Keywords: Council of the Southern Mountains (CSM); UMWA

Subjects: Strikes and lockouts--Coal mining; United Mine Workers of America

00:09:43 - Council of the Southern Mountains during the beginning of the War on Poverty

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Partial Transcript: What was your--the Council's relationship with the OEO? How did that, how did that come about?

Segment Synopsis: Jones discusses the role of the Council of the Southern Mountains at the early stage of the War on Poverty, mentioning that they received funding to help communities organize, and their use of a talent bank.

Keywords: Adam Yarmolinsky(??); Appalachian Volunteers (AVs); Community action technicians; Council of the Southern Mountains (CSM); Financial backing; Race relations; Talent banks

Subjects: United States. Office of Economic Opportunity.

00:18:23 - Council of the Southern Mountains involvement in various War on Poverty projects

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Partial Transcript: As a part of all this, of course, uh, we had helped organize a lot of communities...

Segment Synopsis: Jones continues to talk about the Council of the Southern Mountains involvement with community action programs and the Office of Economic Opportunity. He goes on to talk about other projects the CSM was involved in during the War on Poverty. He talks about why some of their projects were not successful.

Keywords: "Yesterday's People"; Appalachian Volunteers (AVs); Board members; Community Action Programs; Council of the Southern Mountains (CSM); Criticisms; Cumberland Valley Economic Opportunity Program; Different approaches; Investments; Jack Weller; Manpower projects; Perley Ayer; Reorganizing; Small businesses

Subjects: Appalachian Region; Economic development--Kentucky; United States. Office of Economic Opportunity.

00:33:40 - Relations between Council of the Southern Mountains and Office of Economic Opportunity

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Partial Transcript: What was the role of, uh, people like Dick Boone and, uh, whats his name, Jack...

Segment Synopsis: Jones discusses the role several people played in either the CSM or OEO, including Milton Ogle, Phil Conn, Dick Boone, and Jack Ciaccio. He also talks about the shortcomings of OEO.

Keywords: Council of the Southern Mountains (CSM); Criticisms; Dick Boone; Jack Ciaccio; Milton Ogle; OEO; Phil Conn

Subjects: United States. Office of Economic Opportunity.

00:40:24 - Shortcomings of Economic Opportunity Act

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Partial Transcript: And then the--a lot about the, the Economic Opportunity Act was very naive.

Segment Synopsis: Jones talks about the shortcomings he saw in the Economic Opportunity Act and the involvement of both the poor people and their representatives. He talks about how the local poor sometimes were self-serving.

Keywords: Board members; Confrontations; Motivations; Naivety; Poor people

Subjects: Appalachian (People)

00:45:00 - Confronting the local power structure

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Partial Transcript: Uh, earlier you said that the, uh--about that Cumberland Valley...

Segment Synopsis: Jones discusses his belief that the government was not going to fund an insurrection against itself, mentioning that after a while the government will begin to de-fund programs.

Keywords: Confrontational organizations; Council of the Southern Mountains (CSM); Funding; Huey Perry; Liberal foundations; Response of government

Subjects: Elections -- Corrupt practices; Mingo County (W. Va.)

00:53:06 - Relationship between the war on poverty and civil rights movement

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Partial Transcript: What effects did the [Jones coughs] civil rights movement have?

Segment Synopsis: Jones discusses the connection between the civil rights movement and the War on Poverty, mentioning that many of the War on Poverty activists from the civil rights movement migrated to the War on Poverty.

Keywords: Activists; Bill Worthington; Migration; Race relations; War on Poverty

Subjects: Appalachian Region; Civil rights movements--United States; Race relations--Appalachian Region; Social reformers--Appalachian Region

01:00:04 - Impact of the Appalachian Volunteers and Council of the Southern Mountains

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Partial Transcript: Do you think the effects of the AVs had any--do you think the actions of the AVs had any effects on local reform movements?

Segment Synopsis: Jones discusses the impact that the Appalachian Volunteers and Council of the Southern Mountains had on poor Appalachians, mentioning that it enabled them to be more involved.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers (AVs); Community; Council of the Southern Mountains; Influences; Involvement; Poor people; War on Poverty

Subjects: Social reformers--Appalachian Region

01:04:44 - Impact of communists accusations / sedition arrest in Pike County

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Partial Transcript: What about people--lets say you're in, you're in Hazard or, or Whitesburg...

Segment Synopsis: Jones talks about the impact of people being accused of being communists. He talks about how as a country the idea of the threat of communism was difficult to handle. He also talks about the arrest of Al McSurely and Joe Mulloy in Pike County, Kentucky. He mentions whether or not the sedition arrest could have happened in another county.

Keywords: Accusations; Al McSurely; Communists; Edith Easterling; Impact; Joe Mulloy; Kentucky Un-American Activities Committee; McCarthy era; Sit-ins

Subjects: Pike County (Ky.); Pikeville (Ky.)

01:17:35 - Decline of the Appalachian Volunteers / Program 60 / controversial approach

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Partial Transcript: What about--you know the, uh, the AVs didn't last much longer...

Segment Synopsis: Jones discusses what might have led to the decline of the Appalachian Volunteers. He goes on to talk about the people behind the Program 60 which eventually led to the Appalachian Regional Commission. He also talks about the confrontational approach of the Appalachian Volunteers. [Interview is concluded]

Keywords: AVs; Henry Mayer; John D. Whisman; Outside agitators

Subjects: Combs, Bert T., 1911-1991