Interview with Milton Ogle, April 5, 1991

Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, University of Kentucky Libraries
Transcript
Toggle Index/Transcript View Switch.
Index
Search this Index
X
00:00:00 - Introductory information / teaching school and working at Berea College

Play segment

Partial Transcript: This is an oral history interview with Mr. Milton Ogle, for the University of Kentucky War on Poverty Oral History Project.

Segment Synopsis: Kiffmeyer, the interviewer, shares some introductory information about Milton Ogle, the interviewee. Ogle talks about his early life and career, including teaching night classes to Korean War veterans, and working with Berea College students at the school's broom factory.

Keywords: Appalachian Research and Defense Fund; Appalachian Volunteers; Broom factories; Cars; Childhood; Finance companies; Johnny Reed; Money; Night classes; Russell French; Students; Teaching; Veterans

Subjects: Berea College; College students; Council of the Southern Mountains; Floyd County (Va.); Teachers

GPS: Berea College (Berea, Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 37.572746,-84.291379
00:05:02 - Foundation School students attending Berea College / early work with the Council of the Southern Mountains

Play segment

Partial Transcript: These were kids who had come in and, and um, uh, probably had, some of them had dropped out of school...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle talks about the Foundation School, and how it prepared students to attend college at Berea or at other schools. He also describes some of the work he did during his early years with the Council of the Southern Mountains.

Keywords: Accounting; Appalachian Governor's Conference; Broom factories; Community developers; Dick Boone; Foundation School; Governors; High schools; Homer Biggart; John Whistman; Richard Boone; Young people

Subjects: Berea College; College students; Council of the Southern Mountains; Education; Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald), 1917-1963; Students

00:10:23 - Renovating rural schools in Eastern Kentucky

Play segment

Partial Transcript: One thing you need to keep in mind is that the situation in Eastern Kentucky, for example, and that's where we started...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle describes the work that the Council of the Southern Mountains did to rehabilitate the many small, dilapidated schools in Eastern Kentucky. He describes how college students were involved in this work.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Buildings; Ceilings; Eastern Kentucky; Flooring; One room schools; School buildings; Schools; Two room schools

Subjects: College students; Council of the Southern Mountains; Education; Rural schools; Rural schools--Kentucky; Teachers

00:14:19 - College students and working on rural schools

Play segment

Partial Transcript: You... fixing the schools and a contact with school superintendent?

Segment Synopsis: Ogle describes how college students would repair schools in rural Appalachia. He talks about the different universities and colleges the students attended.

Keywords: Construction; Construction work; School superintendents; Schoolhouses; Superintendents

Subjects: College students; Rural schools; Schools; Teachers; Universities and colleges

00:18:06 - Building material for school repairs

Play segment

Partial Transcript: Where did you get all the material for all these projects?

Segment Synopsis: Ogle describes how the Council of the Southern Mountains obtained the money and materials needed to repair schools in rural Appalachia.

Keywords: Boxcars; Building materials; Dick Boone; Frank Roosevelt, Jr.; Glass; Money; Richard Boone; Sheetrock; US Gypsum Company; US Steel; Windowpanes

Subjects: Council of the Southern Mountains; Rural schools; Rural schools--Appalachian Region

00:21:49 - Recruiting college students / philosophy and goals of the Council of the Southern Mountains

Play segment

Partial Transcript: Why did, did you limit yourself to these eighteen colleges in Kentucky? Is that where you were trying to draw...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle describes how the Council of the Southern Mountains worked with colleges and students to recruit volunteers. He also describes the goals of the Council of the Southern Mountains, before the War on Poverty.

Keywords: Cumberland College; Ford Foundation; Jim Boswell; Journalists; Meetings; Newspapers; PARC; Phil Conn; Philosophies; President's Appalachian Regional Commission; Ray Marshall; Schools

Subjects: College students; Council of the Southern Mountains; Courier-journal (Louisville, Ky.)

00:26:57 - Expecting Appalachian people to be suspicious of outside help

Play segment

Partial Transcript: But, I listened to these folks. You see and I, I grew up in the hills. I mean, Floyd County, Virginia...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle shares how many sociologists and others expected people in Appalachia to be suspicious of any efforts to help them. He explains why this was not the case.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Arch Moore; Republicans; Sociologists; Suspicion; Trust; VISTA

Subjects: Appalachians (People); Floyd County (Va.)

00:29:29 - Outside knowledge of Appalachian poverty / unemployment in Appalachia

Play segment

Partial Transcript: When uh, when this all started, when, when Kennedy read uh, the article...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle discusses what most Americans in the early 1960's knew about poverty in Appalachia. He also talks about the rampant unemployment in that area. He tells how government unemployment records did not take many of these unemployed people into account.

Keywords: Communities; Employment; Food stamps; Government; Homer Bigart; Jobs; Public assistance; Victim blaming; Victims

Subjects: Council of the Southern Mountains; Kennedy, John Fitzgerald, 1917-1963; Unemployment

00:34:47 - Beginnings of the War on Poverty / economic development in the 1960's

Play segment

Partial Transcript: But that was what was happening in uh, in uh, Eastern Kentucky, and all of Appalachia at the time.

Segment Synopsis: Ogle describes the beginnings of the War on Poverty, including an act passed by President Kennedy. He also describes what was considered to be economic development in the 1960's, telling why it did not help communities in the long term.

Keywords: Area Redevelopment Administration; Businesses; CBS; Drinking water; Economic development; Economic survival; Experts; Industry; Jobs; Manufacturing; Media; Money; Raises; Television programs; Temporary jobs; War on Poverty; Water quality

Subjects: Charleston (W. Va.); Johnson, Lyndon B. (Lyndon Baines), 1908-1973; Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald), 1917-1963; Poverty; United States. Economic Opportunity Act of 1964

00:39:28 - Important programs of the Economic Opportunity Act

Play segment

Partial Transcript: What did, what did Johnson do that was different? Or did he do anything that was different?

Segment Synopsis: Ogle describes some of the most important programs of the Economic Opportunity Act, which began the War on Poverty. These include Head Start programs, the Economic Development Administration, and the food stamp program.

Keywords: Economic Development Administration; Economic development; Elementary and Secondary Education Act; Food stamp program; Food stamps; Health Service Corps; Health centers; Infrastructure; Job Corps; Money; Nutrition; Roads; Staffing; Water systems

Subjects: Children; Head Start programs; Johnson, Lyndon B. (Lyndon Baines), 1908-1973; United States. Economic Opportunity Act of 1964

00:44:36 - President Johnson's legacy / the Appalachian Volunteers and "helping people help themselves"

Play segment

Partial Transcript: But I think, you know that, I think Johnson... um, had he left, not gotten into that Vietnam--(clears throat)--entanglement...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle talks about the legacy of President Lyndon B. Johnson, and why he feels that entanglement in the Vietnam War ultimately overshadowed his more positive accomplishments. He also talks a little more about the Appalachian Volunteers' work with schoolchildren.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Electricity; Great Society; Learning; Sam Rayburn; Texas; Water

Subjects: College students; Johnson, Lyndon B. (Lyndon Baines), 1908-1973; Poverty; Vietnam War, 1961-1975

00:48:10 - Knowledge and wisdom / building trust with community members

Play segment

Partial Transcript: There's an old guy named Sam Crockett who uh, used to head up the extension center of the University of Virginia in Roanoke...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle talks about the difference between knowledge and wisdom, and how this impacted schoolchildren in Appalachia. He also tells how the Appalachian Volunteers built trust within the communities they worked in.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Community groups; Democracy; Knowledge; Learning; Sam Crockett; School; School systems; Schools; Slogans; Trust; Wisdom

Subjects: Education; United States. Economic Opportunity Act of 1964; Volunteers

00:52:13 - Discussions about potential changes in Appalachia

Play segment

Partial Transcript: But the summer of sixty-six, we had um, hundred and fifty volunteers, full time. Uh, we had gotten some VISTAs...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle talks about some of the conversations that the Appalachian Volunteers and VISTAs would help to initiate in various Appalachian communities. These included discussions on democracy, the state of local roads, and how elections were run in the area.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Conversations; Discussions; Roads; Transportation; VISTA

Subjects: Appalachians (People); Elections; Volunteers; Wolfe County (Ky.)

00:55:54 - Change and community involvement

Play segment

Partial Transcript: If that had been maintained, um, even, even as uh, slipshod as some of the programs were, including the AV's...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle talks about some of the ways that the Appalachian Volunteers worked to promote change in communities. In particular, he describes a meeting in Barbourville, and its results.

Keywords: Change; Communities; Community action programs; Community involvement; Government; Jim Kendrick; Meetings

Subjects: Barbourville (Ky.); Politicians

GPS: Barbourville (Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 36.86479,-83.887825
00:59:14 - The Council of the Southern Mountains as an "establishment" organization

Play segment

Partial Transcript: By nineteen and sixty-eight, Edith Green, great member of congress, decided that...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle shares why he considers the Council of the Southern Mountains to have been an "establishment" organization, and what he means by this. He explains how the organization preferred to help Appalachian people, rather than let them do things for themselves.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Government; Local government; Republicans; Superintendents

Subjects: Council of the Southern Mountains

01:03:34 - The Council of the Southern Mountains and strip mining

Play segment

Partial Transcript: At the first conference, it was called, let's see, the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers.

Segment Synopsis: Ogle continues to describe how the Council of the Southern Mountains tended to support the establishment, using its reaction to strip mining as an example.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Boulders; Bulldozers; Conference of Southern Mountain Workers; Settlement schools

Subjects: Alice Lloyd College; Civil rights movements--United States; Council of the Southern Mountains; Strip mining

01:07:07 - The impact of repairing rural schools

Play segment

Partial Transcript: The, the real early programs that, that y'all did... who, who controlled those programs?

Segment Synopsis: Ogle describes the impact that repairing schools had on the surrounding communities, including the interactions that the Appalachian Volunteers had with local elected officials regarding this work.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Judges; Programs; School buildings; Schools; Superintendents; Teachers

Subjects: Children; Council of the Southern Mountains; Courier-journal (Louisville, Ky.); Rural schools

01:10:26 - The Books for Appalachia program

Play segment

Partial Transcript: What about, what about resources in those schools? I mean, facilities, uh, proper, uh, textbooks, what not. Anything like that?

Segment Synopsis: Ogle describes the Books for Appalachia program and how it was organized. He describes the books that the program received.

Keywords: Book drives; Books; Books for Appalachia program; Charles Drake; Children's books; PTA; Parent Teacher Association; Railway Express Agency; Superintendents; Textbooks; Warehouses

Subjects: Rural schools; Rural schools--Appalachian Region

01:15:07 - Sorting and distributing books donated to the Books for Appalachia program

Play segment

Partial Transcript: But then when the summer started in nineteen and sixty-six, we had four or five volunteers...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle describes how he and other workers and volunteers sorted the huge number of books that were donated to the Books for Appalachia program. He also shares how the books were distributed to schools in several different states.

Keywords: Books; Boxes; Librarians; Marian Dunn; Organization; Reading

Subjects: Rural schools; Volunteers

01:19:19 - Early community action programs in Kentucky and West Virginia

Play segment

Partial Transcript: How, how did the feds and the council and everybody react to the, to your school programs?

Segment Synopsis: Ogle talks about some of the community action programs he worked with in Kentucky and West Virginia. He describes their interactions with the local and federal government.

Keywords: Community action programs; Programs; Publicity

Subjects: Knox County (Ky.); McDowell County (W. Va.)

01:21:58 - Issue organizing in Appalachia

Play segment

Partial Transcript: You and uh, the AV's were interested in issue organizing from the very beginning?

Segment Synopsis: Ogle talks about some of the issue organizing done in Appalachia, especially in Eastern Kentucky. He states that the Appalachian Volunteers assisted with this, but it was mainly instigated by local people.

Keywords: Appalachian Group to Save the Land and People; Appalachian Volunteers; Communities; Issue organizing; Issues; Permits; Road graders; Roads

Subjects: Strip mining

01:24:22 - The Appalachian Volunteers' support of welfare rights

Play segment

Partial Transcript: So who led the, who led the reform in the sixties?

Segment Synopsis: Ogle discusses how the Appalachian Volunteers helped people become more aware of the rights they had related to welfare. He talks about some of the local and national welfare movements.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Eastern Kentucky Welfare Rights Organization; George Wiley; Goldberg decision; Laws; Public assistance; Reform; Welfare; Welfare rights

Subjects: Public welfare; Strip mining

01:28:34 - The desire for reform in the 1960's

Play segment

Partial Transcript: Course, we were picking up, and, and everybody was picking up on the civil rights movement.

Segment Synopsis: Ogle describes how much of the United States was interested in change and reform in the 1960's, both through the civil rights movement and other social movements. [there is a break in the tape]

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Organizing; Respect; Welfare

Subjects: Caudill, Harry M., 1922-1990; Civil rights movements; Civil rights movements--United States; College students; Public welfare; Social movements--United States

01:33:05 - Reform and protest songs / James A. Caywood

Play segment

Partial Transcript: But you know, you take people like Jean Ritchie.

Segment Synopsis: Ogle briefly discusses the protest songs of the 1960's, and their effect on the reform movements of that time. He also recalls a conversation with Dr. James A. Caywood, who considered the people of Harlan County, Kentucky to be childlike, and said that they should be treated as such.

Keywords: Billy Ed Wheeler; Black Waters (song); Dan Fox; James A. Caywood; Jean Ritchie; Protest songs; School boards; School superintendents; Songs; Songwriters

Subjects: Appalachians (People); Council of the Southern Mountains; Harlan County (Ky.)

01:37:26 - "Maximum feasible participation" and Appalachian communities

Play segment

Partial Transcript: Why did, why did you and the AV's decide to go along with this direction and uh... was it the people who pushed you that way...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle talks about the ideal of "maximum feasible participation", and how it applied to the communities the Appalachian Volunteers worked with.

Keywords: "Maximum feasible participation"; Appalachian Volunteers; Dick Benn; Huey Perry; Involvement; James A. Caywood; John Whistman; Participation

Subjects: Strip mining

01:40:50 - Training through role-playing / support from former United Mine Workers of America members

Play segment

Partial Transcript: Some folks you know, the way you get 'em involved, and the way we did with the AV's...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle describes how the Appalachian Volunteers would train new volunteers by having them role-play conversations that they might have with community members. He also states that some of the greatest supporters of the Appalachian Volunteers were former members of the United Mine Workers of America.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Conversations; Role-playing; Talking; Training; Union organizers

Subjects: Poverty; United Mine Workers of America

01:44:01 - The Appalachian Volunteers and other anti-strip mining organizations

Play segment

Partial Transcript: What about the UMW in general? The, the official UMW? How did they react?

Segment Synopsis: Ogle tells how the Appalachian Volunteers, the United Mine Workers of America, and other organizations opposed strip mining.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Eastern Kentucky; Jay Rockefeller; Paul Kaufman; Truck drivers; Union membership; Unions

Subjects: Strip mining; United Mine Workers of America

01:48:10 - College students in VISTA and the Appalachian Volunteers

Play segment

Partial Transcript: Wh, when I, uh, when the, when the VISTAs first came down, wh, wh, did they do alright or, I mean...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle talks about the college students who participated in VISTA and in the Appalachian Volunteers, and how they interacted with the local people they worked with.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Knowledge; Skill; Training; VISTA

Subjects: College students; Volunteers

01:51:23 - Gaining the trust of Appalachian communities

Play segment

Partial Transcript: Did, did the community think that maybe this is just another... bunch of missionaries coming in?

Segment Synopsis: Ogle describes how the Appalachian Volunteers gained the trust of community members, including by helping them get their welfare benefits restored.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Churches; Food stamps; Henderson Settlement School (Whitley County, Ky.); Ministers; Moonshine; Trust; Welfare offices; Young people

Subjects: Kennedy, Robert F., 1925-1968; Public welfare

01:55:25 - The Council of the Southern Mountains' religious concerns

Play segment

Partial Transcript: Tell me about the uh, Council-AV split. Why did that happen?

Segment Synopsis: Ogle describes some of the religious concerns of the Council of the Southern Mountains. These eventually led to the split between the Council and the Appalachian Volunteers.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Christianity; Cumberland College; Dan Fox; Federal grants; Jim Boswell; Money; Morals; Perly Ayer; Phil Young; Programs; Religion; Respect; Workshops

Subjects: College students; Council of the Southern Mountains

02:02:16 - Being fired by the Council of the Southern Mountains

Play segment

Partial Transcript: I can't remember whether there was much inter, e, exchange at all after that, but one morning we went to work...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle describes how he and his assistant director were fired by the Council of the Southern Mountains. He discusses the aftermath of this.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Area Redevelopment Act; Bob Coles; Dan Fox; Firing; Grants; Leslie Dunbar; Letters; Loyal Jones; Money; Perly Ayer; Termination letters

Subjects: Combs, Bert T., 1911-1991; Council of the Southern Mountains; Employees--Dismissal of

02:06:59 - Incorporating the Appalachian Volunteers as a separate organization

Play segment

Partial Transcript: Anyhow he, we sat down and did up articles of incorporation. Uh, and uh, that was on May the second...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle describes how the Appalachian Volunteers were incorporated as an organization separate from the Council of the Southern Mountains.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Board meetings; Day Law; Grants; Incorporation; Perly Ayer

Subjects: Antisemitism; Council of the Southern Mountains; Jews; Segregation

02:11:00 - Philosophical differences in the Council of the Southern Mountains and Appalachian Volunteers

Play segment

Partial Transcript: Would, could, could you s... could you say it was an, a conflict of... philosophies, maybe?

Segment Synopsis: Ogle explains how the philosophies of the Council of the Southern Mountains and Appalachian Volunteers differed, and tells how this contributed to the eventual split between the two organizations.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Change; Perly Ayer; Philosophy

Subjects: Council of the Southern Mountains

02:15:00 - The Appalachian Volunteers and conflict / partying

Play segment

Partial Transcript: Well how did uh, how did you feel about the AV's issue org, organizing and becoming more and more confrontational...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle talks about how the Appalachian Volunteers approached conflict with other organizations and the government. He states he felt that the local people should always be the ones to initiate conflict, not the Volunteers. He also briefly talks about parties that the college aged members of the Appalachian Volunteers had.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Confrontation; Drinking; Parties; Partying; Staff; Staff members; Young people

Subjects: College students; Volunteers

02:19:40 - Attempts to discredit the Appalachian Volunteers / reactions to Ogle's firing

Play segment

Partial Transcript: It was sort of, you know, there, there were folks that were, that were really out to discredit the AV's.

Segment Synopsis: Ogle continues to talk about he Appalachian Volunteers' parties, stating he felt that they were often exaggerated to discredit the organization. He also talks about the reaction other Appalachian Volunteer staff workers had after he was fired by the Council of the Southern Mountains.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Firings; Integration; Parties; Resigning; Staff members

Subjects: Council of the Southern Mountains; Employees--Dismissal of; Politicians; Segregation

02:23:30 - Changing local governments / opposition to an Appalachian Volunteers sponsored newspaper

Play segment

Partial Transcript: What brought, brought them and you and the rest of the people you were involved with to, to the realization...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle described the Appalachian Volunteers' involvement in trying to change local systems and governments. He shares some of the ways that people opposed the newspaper that the Volunteers sponsored.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Arson; Community groups; Fire; Hawkeye (newspaper); Newspapers; Paper; School lunch programs; Schools; Superintendents; Welfare; Wells

Subjects: Poverty; Rural schools

02:28:29 - The Appalachian Volunteers and community action programs / Joe Mulloy's arrest

Play segment

Partial Transcript: How did the AV's r... relate to the community action programs, or the community action agencies?

Segment Synopsis: Ogle describes the relationship that the Appalachian Volunteers had with local community action programs. He also discusses Joe Mulloy's arrest for sedition.

Keywords: Appalachian Group to Save the Land and People; Appalachian Volunteers; Arrests; Community action programs; Jink Ray; Joe Mulloy; Raleigh County; Robert Holcombe

Subjects: Sedition; Strip mining; Volunteers

02:33:31 - The importance of local Appalachian Volunteers staff members

Play segment

Partial Transcript: What about the uh, KUAC hearings?

Segment Synopsis: Ogle shares how important it was for the Appalachian Volunteers to have local staff members as well, rather than only "outsiders". He relates this to the opposition the organization faced.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Arrests; Attitude; Coal companies; Hearings; Kentucky Un-American Activities Committee; Staff

Subjects: Volunteers

02:37:50 - Working with the VISTA program

Play segment

Partial Transcript: After you got a, uh, the influx of VISTAs, the VISTA program, did you still recruit through local colleges...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle talks about how the Appalachian Volunteers worked with the VISTA program (now AmeriCorps VISTA), and describes the differences between these two types of volunteers.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Glenmary; Nuns; Recruitment; Training; VISTA

Subjects: Volunteers

02:42:12 - Increasing radicalism of the Appalachian Volunteers / the Black Lung Movement

Play segment

Partial Transcript: When... after the uh, AV split from the council, and they got heavily involved in anti-strip mining...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle states that the Appalachian Volunteers became more radical in part because they did not focus on self-preservation as much as other organizations. He also talks about the Black Lung Movement.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Bill Worthington; Black Lung Movement; Lawyers; Meetings; Organizations; Staff

Subjects: Council of the Southern Mountains; Sedition; Volunteers

02:49:00 - The Appalachian Volunteers' support of local community groups / Hewlett Smith

Play segment

Partial Transcript: But um, you know, there was a lot of that in the AV's. I mean, uh, we were s... in many ways staff...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle shares how Appalachian Volunteers staff members would support local community groups. He also talks about politician Hewlett Smith.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Community groups; Green Amendment; Hewlett Smith; Lynwood Holton; Money; Newspapers; Political pressure; Staff members

Subjects: West Virginia

02:53:36 - Hewlett Smith and political pressure / Joe Mulloy's firing

Play segment

Partial Transcript: I understand that he, uh, he wanted to meet with me back during, during that time, and I wouldn't do that because I felt like...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle talks about the political pressure that Hewlett Smith and other politicians put on the Appalachian Volunteers. He also discusses Joe Mulloy being fired from the organization.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Dave Walls; Firings; Hewlett Smith; Joe Mulloy; Meetings; Negotiation; Political pressure; Pressure

Subjects: Draft; Employees--Dismissal of; Politicians

02:58:01 - Reactions to Joe Mulloy's resisting the draft

Play segment

Partial Transcript: What about, did they think it'd have a negative effect on the local people as well?

Segment Synopsis: Ogle talks about his own and others' reactions to Joe Mulloy's decision to resist being drafted to fight in the Vietnam War. [there is a break in the recording]

Keywords: Choices; Credibility; Joe Mulloy

Subjects: Braden, Carl, 1914-1975; Draft; Sedition; Vietnam War, 1961-1975

03:02:21 - A hearing of the Citizen Board of Inquiry into Hunger and Malnutrition

Play segment

Partial Transcript: The hearings at um, that Kennedy conducted in 1978 I-- Sixty-eight, I guess it was.

Segment Synopsis: Ogle discusses a hearing that the Citizen Board of Inquiry into Hunger and Malnutrition held in Hazard, Kentucky to assess the needs of people in Appalachia. He mentions that this was partly the basis for the food stamp program.

Keywords: Citizen Board of Inquiry into Hunger and Malnutrition; Dick Bruin; Food stamps; Hearings; Hunger; Leslie Dunbar; Lunches

Subjects: Hazard (Ky.); Kennedy, Robert F., 1925-1968

GPS: Hazard (Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 37.249188,-83.19603
03:07:28 - Governor Nunn / leaving the Appalachian Volunteers

Play segment

Partial Transcript: Wha, wha, what happens to the AV's wh... when Lou... a, after Breathitt's out and Louie Nunn's in?

Segment Synopsis: Ogle talks about Governor Louie B. Nunn's impact on the Appalachian Volunteers. He tells why he left the Volunteers, citing stress as a major cause.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Cars; Governors; Grants; Mountain Parkway; Stress; Tuskegee Institute; VISTA; Vetoes

Subjects: Floyd County (Ky.); Kentucky. Governor (1967-1971 : Nunn); Ku Klux Klan (1915- ); Nunn, Louie B., 1924-2004; Tuskegee (Ala.)

03:12:05 - Other social movements post-Appalachian Volunteers

Play segment

Partial Transcript: After the uh, money starts running out, uh, the War on Poverty in general, not just the AV's...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle talks about some of the other movements that occurred after the end of the Appalachian Volunteers organization.

Keywords: Block Loan Movement; Economy; Mingo County (W.Va.); Money; Voter rolls; Voting

Subjects: Poverty; West Virginia

03:16:46 - Problems in current (1991) politics / current activism work

Play segment

Partial Transcript: Look at the National Democratic Party. It's afraid to even talk about the things it always stood for.

Segment Synopsis: Ogle shares what he feels are problems in early 1990's politics. He also discusses how his organization has been involved in activism in the past few years.

Keywords: Class action suits; Corruption; HUD scandal; Housing and Urban Development Scandal; James Watt; Lawsuits; Mental health; Paul Kaufman; Politics; Quotas; Savings and loans scandal; Scandals; Taxes

Subjects: Democratic Party (U.S.); Politicians; United States. Civil Rights Act of 1964; West Virginia

03:22:39 - Recent (1991) cases / food stamps and other important programs

Play segment

Partial Transcript: For example, the um, uh, one case, uh, where private proprietary vocational schools were recruiting students...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle discusses some of the other cases he has been involved in in recent years. He also talks about the importance of food stamps and other social programs.

Keywords: AppalReD; Company stores; Construction industry; Food; Food stamps; Jails; Job Corps; Malnourishment; Mickey Leland; Prisons; Settlements; Student loans; Vocational schools

Subjects: Head Start programs

03:27:03 - The Green Amendment / impact of the War on Poverty

Play segment

Partial Transcript: You know, I, I, I, think that, you know, really people need to be active, you know, at every level...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle returns to the topic of the Green Amendment, and the effect that it had on the Appalachian Volunteers. He also discusses the legacy of the War on Poverty.

Keywords: AMA; Activism; Appalachian Volunteers; Community organizing; Grants; Green Amendment; Health insurance; Houses; Money; Non-profits; Office of Economic Opportunity; PACs; Political Action Committees; Polls; Programs; Schools; War on Poverty

Subjects: Nixon, Richard M. (Richard Milhous), 1913-1994; Nunn, Louie B., 1924-2004; Poverty; United States. Economic Opportunity Act of 1964

03:34:17 - The positive impact of non-local activists in social movements

Play segment

Partial Transcript: See, when you say if, would you have done anything different, uh, uh, I'm an entirely different person from what I was twenty five years ago...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle discusses how "outsiders", or non-local activists, have had a positive impact on the civil rights movement, the War on Poverty, and other social movements.

Keywords: Appalachian Volunteers; Black Lung Association; Frederick Douglass; Money; Outsiders; Power; War on Poverty

Subjects: Civil rights movements--United States; King, Martin Luther, Jr. 1929-1968; Politicians; Suffragists; United States. Economic Opportunity Act of 1964; West Virginia; Women--Suffrage

03:38:14 - Andrew Young / West Virginia's treatment by the rest of the country

Play segment

Partial Transcript: We had a meeting in 1967 over here at the Garnet School. Had about six hundred people there.

Segment Synopsis: Ogle talks about the civil rights leader and politician Andrew Young. He also discusses how West Virginia is viewed and treated by the rest of the country. This includes the out of state corporations that have a strong influence on the area.

Keywords: Appalachian People's Meeting; Corporations; Cotiga Land Company; Marjorin McDermid (??); Outsiders; Primaries; Public speakers; Speakers; War on Poverty

Subjects: Appalachian Region; Appalachians (People); Education; Kennedy, John Fitzgerald, 1917-1963; Kennedy, Robert F., 1925-1968; Mingo County (W. Va.); Young, Andrew, 1932-

03:44:21 - Harry Caudill / the importance of social programs

Play segment

Partial Transcript: Um, Harry Caudill did a lot to, to wake people up, you know. He wrote this very humorous, um, very, uh, well written book...

Segment Synopsis: Ogle talks briefly about how Harry Caudill's books in the 1960's sparked interest in the Appalachian region. He also discusses the importance of social programs such as Head Start and the Job Corps. The interview concludes abruptly.

Keywords: Authors; Books; Food; Food programs; Health; Ignorance; Job Corps; School systems; Shelter; War on Poverty; Writers

Subjects: Appalachian Region; Caudill, Harry M., 1922-1990; Education; Head Start programs; United States. Economic Opportunity Act of 1964