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00:00:01 - Early life

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Partial Transcript: Begin with the real easy part, you want to tell me your full name, and where and when you were born.

Segment Synopsis: Johnson talks about his early life mentioning that he grew up in a small town in Iowa and provided milk for his town and school when he was in high school. He talks about his further education, work in agriculture, and employment.

Keywords: Employment; Family background; Little Cedar (Iowa); Volunteer work

Subjects: Education, Higher

00:06:31 - First job in War on Poverty

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Partial Transcript: And then I volunteered to uh--I wanted to work, uh, with some poor, uh--I hadn't been in the Southeast...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses why he decided to work in Appalachia and talks about his impressions of the region and its people. He goes on to talk about getting hired as the director of the Madison County Community Action Program.

Keywords: Getting hired; Impressions; Talent bank

Subjects: Appalachian Region; Appalachians (People); Madison County (Ky.)

00:12:51 - Community Action Program director

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Partial Transcript: So what, what did Madison County--it was the, Madis, Madison County Community Action Program...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson talks about being a Community Action Program (CAP) director in Madison County, Ky. He talks about the make up and power of the board of the CAP. He also talks about their involvement in educational programs like Head Start.

Keywords: Board; Confrontations; Freedom; Head Start programs; Hiring practices; Madison County Community Action Program; School systems; Setting up programs

Subjects: Madison County (Ky.)

00:18:05 - Tension between CAPs and local schools over Head Start

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Partial Transcript: Uh, schools were somewhat, uh, jealous of their territory in that someone else would have any say...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses the problems that local schools had with the Head Start program. He goes on to talk about the Head Start program, mentioning its size and people involved with the program.

Keywords: Community Action Programs (CAPs); Confrontations; Funding issues; Schools

Subjects: Head Start programs--Kentucky.

00:25:24 - Other conflicts between CAP and local power structure

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Partial Transcript: What other, um, what other conflicts did you end up getting into with the board?

Segment Synopsis: Johnson talks about conflicts that arose between the CAP and the local power structure, mentioning that some of the issues were housing, low income specific programs, and spending.

Keywords: CAP board; Community Action Programs (CAPs); Coordinating; Federal government; Grant writing; Housing projects; Spending; Tension; Trickle down theory

Subjects: Berea College; Madison County (Ky.); Richmond (Ky.)

00:30:36 - Various programs supported by the Madison County Community Action Program

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Partial Transcript: We had--one of the things we had--I'd say we had our most success was with...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson talks about different programs that they were involved in, including an adult education program and CAP credit union.

Keywords: Adult education; CAP credit union; Confrontations; Local school system

Subjects: Madison County (Ky.)

00:36:40 - Multi-county Community Action Program

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Partial Transcript: When did you go from being the director of the Madison County to the four county or three county...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson talks about the consolidation of single-county Community Action Programs into one multi-county CAP. He also talks about starting a local food stamp program. He talks about the difficulties that he dealt with as an outsider and as the CAP's director.

Keywords: Community Action Program (CAP); Conflicts; Federal funding; Food stamp programs; Jobs; Kentucky River Foothills; Multi-county; Ravenna (Ky.)

Subjects: Economic assistance, Domestic--Appalachian Region

00:49:08 - Confrontations

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Partial Transcript: Did, did you have any encounters with violence?

Segment Synopsis: Johnson talks about the violence and confrontations that occurred within the community in regard to the Community Action Program. He talks about the education level of local authorities.

Keywords: CAP meetings; Community Action Program (CAP); Education level; Elected officials; Local leadership; Threats

00:53:38 - Successful programs

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Partial Transcript: Which of the programs that you ran did you feel was the most successful, or had the biggest impact on the area?

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses the programs that he was involved in that he felt were most successful, including the Head Start program and housing improvements.

Keywords: Head Start Programs; Housing improvements; Mrs. Tom Cornett; Paint Lick (Ky.); Tutoring programs

Subjects: Economic assistance, Domestic--Appalachian Region; Richmond (Ky.)

00:59:00 - Role of politics / Green Amendment

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Partial Transcript: Did you run into uh, um, any other conflicts because you weren't from the area?

Segment Synopsis: Johnson talks about the role politics played in the community. He talks about the impact of the Green Amendment.

Keywords: "The South"; Board composition; Community Action Program (CAP); Green Amendment; Importance; Locals; Political pressure; Politics

Subjects: Economic assistance, Domestic--Appalachian Region

01:04:04 - Changes / leaving the Community Action Program

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Partial Transcript: How, how did your job change over this time period? Or, you know, when the switch came...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson talks about how his job duties changed when the Community Action Program consolidated into a multi-county CAP. He talks about why he left the CAP.

Keywords: CAP director; Changes; Community Action Program; Multi-County; Turnover

01:13:20 - Shortcomings of Community Action Programs / after leaving CAP

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Partial Transcript: If you, uh--if the program could be set up differently, how, how could the program be set up differently...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses the problems Community Action Programs had in implementing programs. He talks about what he did after he left the CAP.

Keywords: CAPs; Wasting time

Subjects: Des Moines (Iowa); Economic assistance, Domestic--Appalachian Region; Employment

01:18:40 - Lessons learned

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Partial Transcript: Um, well so how would you say that the--that what you learned worked in your life?

Segment Synopsis: Johnson talks about the things he learned while working for a Community Action Program during the War on Poverty.

Keywords: Class; Realizations; Role of economics; Working with churches

01:25:01 - Difference between now and War on Poverty era / motivation for getting involved

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Partial Transcript: Why do you think that there's less, um, interest and energy and social change now than there was then?

Segment Synopsis: Johnson talks about how the emphasis of our nation's leaders is no longer on social change like it was during the War on Poverty era. He talks about his motivations for getting involved.

Keywords: Influence; National leadership; War on Poverty era

Subjects: King, Martin Luther, Jr. 1929-1968

01:29:54 - Motivations for joining War on Poverty

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Partial Transcript: What about all those people who worked for you in the, in the CAP. What would you say their motivations were?

Segment Synopsis: Johnson talks about the possible motivations of his staff while he was working as a Community Action Program director. He also talks about the conflicts some of the local staff had because of their jobs with the CAP.

Keywords: Community Action Program (CAP); Local pressures; Local staff; Low income staff; Motivations; Professional staff; Transportation; Value systems

Subjects: Economic assistance, Domestic--Appalachian Region

01:35:17 - Conflicts between local and professional staff / final thoughts

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Partial Transcript: Did you ever, did you have conflicts, ever, between the professional staff and the local staff?

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses the types of things that would cause conflict between the local and professional staff members of the CAP.

Keywords: Appearance; Different focuses