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00:00:00 - Hazards of campaigning / Providing access to and restricting information

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Partial Transcript: --twenty-ninth I guess, isn't it?

Segment Synopsis: Birdwhistell asks Huddleston what goes through his mind when he learns of a tragedy that has occurred. Huddleston recalls Senator John Heinz of Pennsylvania being killed in a plane crash while on campaign, a candidate in Virginia being killed in a plane crash, the wife of Senator Ted Stevens being killed in a plane crash during a campaign, and a candidate in Missouri killed late in their campaign, again, in a plane crash. He talks about the dangers of travel and emergency landings. Birdwhistell mentions how senators operated without cellphones. Huddleston comments on how much easier it is for information to pass through multiple hands, noting how taking a document out of the Senate Intelligence Committee room was a serious offense in his day. He states that he came to the conclusion that intelligence operations were essential for policy making and the whole idea of a secret, unsupervised operation of this nature was an anathema to a free democratic society. Huddleston explains that the question came to be how to balance the need for intelligence while not gravitating towards authoritarianism. Huddleston states that he had a respect for congress generally and the senate particularly before he ever thought about running for office. After becoming part of the senate, he explains that he had a desire to maintain that respect by ensuring the continued democratic nature of the legislature. Birdwhistell asks Huddleston what his experience was like in working with William Miller and his staff. Huddleston replies that he thinks Miller did a good job and describes the good qualities of Miller. Birdwhistell mentions that one of the biggest issues facing the intelligence committee was how to let the world know what it was doing. He asks Huddleston about the debates in the committee over this issue. Huddleston recalls all of the members being concerned since they were breaking new ground in looking at the total intelligence operations of the entire country. Huddleston stresses that the committee had to be careful to protect the intelligence it oversaw and not expose it.

Keywords: Bill Miller; Campaign accidents; Campaign tragedies; Classified information; Communication; Congress of the United States; Democracy; Election campaign accidents; Election campaign tragedies; Election campaigning; Election campaigns; Espionage; Freedom of information; Information access; Intelligence; Intelligence leaks; Intelligence operations; Plane accidents; Plane crashes; Political campaign accidents; Political campaign tragedies; Political campaigning; Political campaigns; Senate Intelligence Committee; Senate committees; U.S. Congress; U.S. Senate; U.S. Senate Committee on Intelligence; U.S. Senate Intelligence Committee; U.S. legislature; U.S. senate committees; United States Congress; United States Senate; United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence; United States legislature; United States senate committees; William Miller

Subjects: Espionage, American; Freedom of information.; Huddleston, Walter D. (Walter Darlington), 1926-; Huddleston, Walter D. (Walter Darlington), 1926- --Interviews; Huddleston, Walter D. (Walter Darlington), 1926-2018; Intelligence; Kentucky--Politics and government; Kentucky--Politics and government--1951-; Kentucky--Politics and government.; Leaks (Disclosure of information); Political campaigns--United States; Political campaigns--United States.; Political campaigns.; United States. Congress. Senate.

00:15:11 - Intelligence deal with the CIA

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Partial Transcript: We come to the, uh, Shamrock Hearings. You remember that?

Segment Synopsis: Birdwhistell refers to quotes about the Shamrock Hearings. Huddleston comments that the quotes point out the quandary that the committee was often in about releasing information to the public. He explains that it was often better to lay out information officially rather than let the press speculate. Birdwhistell refers to another set of quotes about a debate going on in the senate and Huddleston says that after his months of effort behind closed doors, having a contest in the Senate like the quotes described was a little disheartening at the time. Huddleston talks about the committee splitting into two parts and the departure of Frank Church from the Committee. Birdwhistell refers to a story Huddleston had previously told him about going out to CIA headquarters when George H.W. Bush was its director. Huddleston remarks that he didn’t think the committee needed access to personal names in that scenario because it wasn’t going after individuals and the press would have gone crazy with it. He says that the committee wanted to know what they were doing rather than who they are. Huddleston states that the committee ended up putting a restriction against using newspaper people as secret agents and the newspaper industry should have been opposed to the idea as well. Birdwhistell comments that many of the things that the committee discussed were related to foreign policy, but were more grounded in how the federal government works. Huddleston agrees and states that he never understood why people were concerned about the foreign policy experience in this particular kind of operation because he knew the results of what happened in other countries and the efforts being made by the U.S. in those countries. Birdwhistell jokes that Huddleston did gain foreign policy experience while he fought in a tank during WWII. Birdwhistell asks Huddleston if he watched a congressional debate that had taken place the night before their interview, but Huddleston had not. Birdwhistell describes the debate to Huddleston about the comments made by the candidates about each other.

Keywords: Central Intelligence Agency (CIA); Classified information; Communication; Congress of the United States; Congressional debates; Criticism; Criticisms; Critiques; Espionage; Foreign policy; Frank Church III; Frank Forrester Church III; Freedom of information; George Bush Sr.; George H.W. Bush; George Herbert Walker Bush; Information access; Intelligence; Intelligence leaks; Intelligence operations; Journalists; Journalists in espionage; Newspaper journalists; Press; Press coverage; Senate Intelligence Committee; Senate committees; Shamrock Hearings; U.S. Congress; U.S. Senate; U.S. Senate Committee on Intelligence; U.S. Senate Intelligence Committee; U.S. legislature; U.S. senate committees; United States Congress; United States Senate; United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence; United States legislature; United States senate committees

Subjects: Criticism--Political aspects; Espionage, American; Freedom of information.; Huddleston, Walter D. (Walter Darlington), 1926-; Huddleston, Walter D. (Walter Darlington), 1926- --Interviews; Huddleston, Walter D. (Walter Darlington), 1926-2018; Intelligence; Kentucky--Politics and government; Kentucky--Politics and government--1951-; Kentucky--Politics and government.; Leaks (Disclosure of information); United States. Congress. Senate.

00:31:04 - Intelligence reform / Impact of committee work on future election loss

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Partial Transcript: Um, let me just go to another paragraph here, Senator. I'm kind of skipping around--

Segment Synopsis: Birdwhistell asks Huddleston about a meeting in a senator’s office about intelligence reform and what it was like in that room. Huddleston says that it was interesting because while you were trying to change the culture of intelligence and how it is discussed, the room was full of long-term senators who had worked through times when you never talked about intelligence. He adds that it was difficult to get some of the senators to move in a direction of reform at all. Huddleston describes some of the issues that were discussed at the meeting. Birdwhistell asks Huddleston if the president ever called him about this. Huddleston answers that they were in a lot of contact with the president and met in the vice president’s office at least twice a week for a period of time. Birdwhistell asks if Huddleston remembers the passing of an amendment that guarded against defamation of senators’ reputations in regard to leaking intelligence. Huddleston replies that he does remember it and illustrates why the amendment was passed through the example of another senator. Birdwhistell asks Huddleston if he remembers an incident where an intelligence agent was murdered. Huddleston responds that he does and that he and other senators knew that they were susceptible to that kind of situation. Birdwhistell recites a quote that said the intelligence investigation of 1965 was one of the most significant inquiries conducted by the U.S. Senate. Huddleston states that he believes that’s true because this investigation had a lot to do with the actual operation of the government. Birdwhistell and Huddleston talk about where some of the senators that worked on the investigation have ended up, particularly Gary Hart. Birdwhistell mentions that some commentators have linked Huddleston’s participation in the Senate Intelligence Committee to his later election defeat and asks Huddleston if he thinks this is accurate. Huddleston replies that there isn’t a direct connection, but explains that the nature of the committee didn’t gain him any political limelight since its proceedings weren’t discussed with the public. Birdwhistell remarks that, because of the narrow margin of loss to Mitch McConnell, historians can point to any small issue in Huddleston’s career in an attempt to explain his election defeat. Huddleston acknowledges that’s true and it could’ve been any issue, including the Panama Canal or an insult he gave somebody.

Keywords: Classified information; Communication; Congress of the United States; Congressional debates; Espionage; Freedom of information; Gary Hart; Gary Warren Hart; Information access; Intelligence; Intelligence investigations; Intelligence leaks; Intelligence operations; Intelligence reform; Legislative reform; Panama Canal; Panama Canal Treaty; Political campaigning; Political campaigns; Senate Intelligence Committee; Senate committees; Torrijos-Carter Treaties; U.S. Congress; U.S. Senate; U.S. Senate Committee on Intelligence; U.S. Senate Intelligence Committee; U.S. legislature; U.S. senate committees; United States Congress; United States Senate; United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence; United States legislature; United States senate committees

Subjects: Espionage, American; Freedom of information.; Huddleston, Walter D. (Walter Darlington), 1926-; Huddleston, Walter D. (Walter Darlington), 1926- --Interviews; Huddleston, Walter D. (Walter Darlington), 1926-2018; Intelligence; Kentucky--Politics and government; Kentucky--Politics and government--1951-; Kentucky--Politics and government.; Law reform.; Leaks (Disclosure of information); Political campaigns--United States; Political campaigns--United States.; Political campaigns.; United States. Congress. Senate.

00:45:52 - Professional growth

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Partial Transcript: Well, thinking about the--the aftermath of all this then, how did--how did your service on that committee change your--your view of your work in the Senate and how did it change how you were viewed in the Senate? If at all?

Segment Synopsis: Birdwhistell asks Huddleston how his service on the intelligence committee influenced his work in the Senate and the perception that other senators had of him. Huddleston supposes that his experience on committee helped him grow up a little bit professionally. Huddleston says that he had a great staff, but the fact he was gone so much in totally secret meetings took a toll on them when they needed to get things done quickly. Birdwhistell asks Huddleston if he feels like he hit a stride when conducting his senate work. Birdwhistell asks if moving into a Democratic presidency in 1972 affected what Huddleston and his counterpart, Senator Ford, operated and worked on things in Kentucky. Huddleston discusses his re-election campaign, including his timetable, fundraising, and how his support of the Panama Canal treaty was just about the only thing used against him in the race. Huddleston describes his Republican opponent in that election, Louie Guenthner, a state senator who was known to be radical and had a conflict with Mitch McConnell within the Republican Party. He talks about winning his re-election in 1978 and his plans for the future at that time. Huddleston describes how his seniority in the senate changed.

Keywords: Campaign fundraising; Campaigning strategies; Congress of the United States; Election campaign fundraising; Election campaigning; Election campaigns; Fundraising; Kentucky government; Kentucky politicians; Louie Guenthner; Louie R. Guenthner Jr.; Panama Canal; Panama Canal Treaty; Political campaign fundraising; Political campaigning; Political campaigns; Political seniority; Professional growth; Reelection campaign fundraising; Reelection campaigning; Reelection campaigns; Self-reflection; Senate Intelligence Committee; Senate committees; Senate seniority; Seniority; State elections; Torrijos-Carter Treaties; U.S. Congress; U.S. Senate; U.S. Senate Committee on Intelligence; U.S. Senate Intelligence Committee; U.S. legislature; U.S. senate committees; United States Congress; United States Senate; United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence; United States legislature; United States senate committees; Wendell Ford; Wendell H. Ford

Subjects: Campaign funds; Campaign funds--Kentucky; Huddleston, Walter D. (Walter Darlington), 1926-; Huddleston, Walter D. (Walter Darlington), 1926- --Interviews; Huddleston, Walter D. (Walter Darlington), 1926-2018; Kentucky--Politics and government; Kentucky--Politics and government--1951-; Kentucky--Politics and government.; Panama Canal Treaty (1977 September 7); Political campaigns--United States; Political campaigns--United States.; Political campaigns.; State governments--Officials and employees; United States. Congress. Senate.

01:00:24 - Governor Carroll / Government corruption post-Watergate

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Partial Transcript: What about, uh--I keep coming back to this and I don't know that there's that much of a connection...

Segment Synopsis: Birdwhistell asks Huddleston about his relationship to Governor Julian Carroll and if he was helpful in Huddleston’s 1978 campaign. Huddleston replies that his relationship with Carroll was very good despite coming up different paths in the party and describes his interactions with Carroll as positive. Birdwhistell talks about all of the issues that faced Carroll’s administration and asks Huddleston what he made of them. Huddleston agrees with Birdwhistell’s statement that Carroll was one of the best prepared governors for the state, but thinks that his problem was that the people around him were also well-versed in government operations for self-gain. Birdwhistell asks Huddleston if it was the activities of officials or the oversight of them that changed after Watergate. Huddleston says that he thinks that latter part of Birdwhistell’s statement is true, that there is less tolerance for corruption in government.

Keywords: Congress of the United States; Corruption; Government corruption; Governors; Julian Carroll; Julian Morton Carroll; Kentucky government; Kentucky governors; Kentucky politicians; Political corruption; Political seniority; Post-Watergate; Senate Intelligence Committee; Senate committees; State elections; State governors; U.S. Congress; U.S. Senate; U.S. Senate Committee on Intelligence; U.S. Senate Intelligence Committee; U.S. legislature; U.S. senate committees; United States Congress; United States Senate; United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence; United States legislature; United States senate committees

Subjects: Governors--Kentucky; Huddleston, Walter D. (Walter Darlington), 1926-; Huddleston, Walter D. (Walter Darlington), 1926- --Interviews; Huddleston, Walter D. (Walter Darlington), 1926-2018; Kentucky--Governors; Kentucky--Politics and government; Kentucky--Politics and government--1951-; Kentucky--Politics and government.; Kentucky. Governor (1974-1979 : Carroll); Political campaigns--United States; Political campaigns--United States.; Political campaigns.; Political corruption; Political corruption--Kentucky; Political corruption.; State governments--Officials and employees; United States. Congress. Senate.

01:05:40 - Democratic Party in Kentucky

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Partial Transcript: When you look at this 1970s, uh, period, uh, two United States senators, a very powerful governor, uh, members of Congress, uh, control of the state legislature, uh, money--money in the state budget to do--

Segment Synopsis: Birdwhistell mentions that Huddleston’s term in office was the golden age for Democrats in Kentucky. Huddleston remarks that he doesn’t think that Democrats got their message across very well. Huddleston states that the current time is a great time to spread the Democratic message because of the labor situation. He talks about how union members are becoming Republicans and how social security is being attached to Republicans despite the party originally trying to prevent the two. Huddleston mentions that part of the problem is that people get caught in a “cult” following for their political party. Birdwhistell asks Huddleston what he made of the political situation at the time he was senator.

Keywords: Campaigning strategies; Congress of the United States; Democratic Party; Democratic Party message; Democratic Party organization; Democratic Party platform; Election campaigning; Election campaigns; Kentucky Democratic Party; Kentucky government; Kentucky politicians; Political campaigning; Political campaigns; Political party organization; Political party platforms; Political platforms; Reelection campaigning; Reelection campaigns; State elections; U.S. Congress; U.S. Senate; U.S. legislature; United States Congress; United States Senate; United States legislature

Subjects: Democratic Party (Ky.); Democratic Party (U.S.); Huddleston, Walter D. (Walter Darlington), 1926-; Huddleston, Walter D. (Walter Darlington), 1926- --Interviews; Huddleston, Walter D. (Walter Darlington), 1926-2018; Kentucky--Politics and government; Kentucky--Politics and government--1951-; Kentucky--Politics and government.; Political campaigns--United States; Political campaigns--United States.; Political campaigns.; State governments--Officials and employees; United States. Congress. Senate.

01:11:12 - Governor John Y. Brown, Jr.

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Partial Transcript: Some people, uh, who've st--who look at Kentucky politics and government and history, uh, of course have, uh, zeroed in on the election of John Y. Brown, Jr. as a watershed, uh, period for Kentucky government and politics.

Segment Synopsis: Huddleston describes various politicians in Kentucky at the time and what his opinions were on them, particularly discussing Governor John Brown Jr. Birdwhistell asks Huddleston what impact the Brown administration had on the subsequent health of the Democratic Party. Huddleston replies that he thinks it hindered it because Brown wasn’t very interested in party organization or conflict. Huddleston adds that he thinks the increased focus on TV political campaigning hurt the Democratic traditional reliance on the support of local businesses. Birdwhistell asks Huddleston if he worked closely on any projects in Kentucky with the Brown administration. Huddleston doesn’t recall any particular project, but says he had a lot of contact with Brown. Birdwhistell asks Huddleston if Senator Wendell Ford’s re-election campaign changed his relationship with him. Huddleston thinks it did and explains that they both paid attention to any opportunities that came along. He describes how Ford handled his election campaigns.

Keywords: Campaigning strategies; Congress of the United States; Democratic Party; Democratic Party message; Democratic Party organization; Democratic Party platform; Election campaigning; Election campaigns; Governors; John Y. Brown Jr.; Kentucky Democratic Party; Kentucky government; Kentucky governors; Kentucky politicians; Political campaigning; Political campaigns; Political party organization; Political party platforms; Political platforms; Reelection campaigning; Reelection campaigns; State elections; State governors; U.S. Congress; U.S. Senate; U.S. legislature; United States Congress; United States Senate; United States legislature; Wendell Ford; Wendell H. Ford

Subjects: Brown, John Y. (John Young) Jr., 1933-; Democratic Party (Ky.); Democratic Party (U.S.); Governors--Kentucky; Huddleston, Walter D. (Walter Darlington), 1926-; Huddleston, Walter D. (Walter Darlington), 1926- --Interviews; Huddleston, Walter D. (Walter Darlington), 1926-2018; Kentucky--Governors; Kentucky--Politics and government; Kentucky--Politics and government--1951-; Kentucky--Politics and government.; Kentucky. Governor (1979-1983 : Brown); Political campaigns--United States; Political campaigns--United States.; Political campaigns.; State governments--Officials and employees; United States. Congress. Senate.

01:22:43 - Presidential election of 1980: Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan

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Partial Transcript: And of course, uh, as you, uh--as we approach the presidential election in 1980, uh, you can probably see that there are issues out there that are going to be troublesome.

Segment Synopsis: Birdwhistell asks Huddleston what he thought of the upcoming presidential election between Carter and Reagan. Huddleston responds that he knew trouble was coming for Carter after the Iran Hostage Crisis and knew Reagan was popular, despite not thinking he was qualified to be president before or after his term in office. Birdwhistell asks if Huddleston talked to President Carter after his election defeat. Huddleston answers that he did and that Carter told him thanks for working with him and expressed regret for how he handled the hostage situation, adding that his own reelection loss can probably be partly attributed to the popularity of Reagan. Birdwhistell asks Huddleston about life in Washington, D.C. Huddleston describes the social events that happen in the capital city and recalls it as a very pleasant time in his life.

Keywords: Campaigning strategies; Congress of the United States; Democratic Party; Democratic Party message; Democratic Party platform; Election campaigning; Election campaigns; Iran Hostage Crisis; James Carter Jr.; Jimmy Carter; Kentucky government; Kentucky politicians; Political campaigning; Political campaigns; Political party organization; Political party platforms; Political platforms; President Carter; President Reagan; Reelection campaigning; Reelection campaigns; Ronald Reagan; State elections; U.S. Congress; U.S. Senate; U.S. legislature; United States Congress; United States Senate; United States legislature; Washington D.C.

Subjects: Carter, Jimmy, 1924-; Huddleston, Walter D. (Walter Darlington), 1926-; Huddleston, Walter D. (Walter Darlington), 1926- --Interviews; Huddleston, Walter D. (Walter Darlington), 1926-2018; Iran Hostage Crisis, 1979-1981.; Kentucky--Politics and government; Kentucky--Politics and government--1951-; Kentucky--Politics and government.; Political campaigns--United States; Political campaigns--United States.; Political campaigns.; Reagan, Ronald; Reagan, Ronald.; State governments--Officials and employees; United States. Congress. Senate.; Washington (D.C.)