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00:00:03 - Malcolm X and Black Muslims

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Partial Transcript: --we'll have a few things like that.

Segment Synopsis: The group discuss why they think the Black Muslim movement, under the leadership of figures like Malcolm X and Elijah Muhammad, has gained more supporters recently. They also compare this movement to those of Roy Wilkins and Martin Luther King, Jr. in terms of their appeal to their black contemporaries.

Keywords: African American spirituals; Black Muslim movement; Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.; Ex-convicts; Malcolm X; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP); Roy Wilkins

Subjects: African American leadership; African Americans--Race identity; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Segregation; Black Muslims

00:12:45 - Dubois' split culture concept

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Partial Transcript: May I try a question on that subject?

Segment Synopsis: The group responds to the question of whether African Americans, individually or as a group, prefer to maintain their separate identity as a different race or be assimilated and fully incorporated into the greater American culture via integration.

Keywords: Africa; Assimilation; E. Franklin Frazier; Vance Packard; W.E.B. Dubois

Subjects: African Americans--Race identity.; Black Muslims; Integration

00:27:57 - Disadvantages of integration

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Partial Transcript: May I interrupt a second, on that point?

Segment Synopsis: Continuing their discussion on the split impulse issue raised by Warren in the previous segment, the group considers the question as it relates to black individuals, and how their thoughts on that subject should translate to those fighting and protesting for civil rights and equality.

Keywords: Arnold Marshall Rose; Congress of Racial Equality (CORE); Disadvantages; Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.; Howard University; Lucy Thornton; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP); Social theory

Subjects: African American leadership; African Americans--Race identity; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Societies, etc.; Black universities and colleges; Civilization. Western; United States--Race relations.

00:41:42 - Avoiding self pity

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Partial Transcript: What do you think of this pr, proposition...

Segment Synopsis: The group respond to the notion that black people should always accept that their race puts them at a social disadvantage. They reject it, and praise parts of the movement that encourage self-worth and identity among the black population.

Keywords: Alibi; Determination; Elijah Muhammad; Self-pity

Subjects: African Americans--Conduct of life; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs; Black Muslims

00:46:05 - Black Muslims and middle class values

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Partial Transcript: What about this?

Segment Synopsis: The students engage in a discussion of whether the Black Muslim movement exists on a rational basis if indeed the white, American middle class values they purport to separate themselves from, are actually what they are seeking.

Keywords: American middle class; Black Muslim movement

Subjects: African Americans--Attitudes; African Americans--Case studies; African Americans--Color--Social aspects; African Americans--Conduct of life; African Americans--Social life and customs; Black Muslims; Middle class

00:56:40 - Dr. King and movement cohesiveness

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Partial Transcript: May I read you a quotation on Black Muslims?

Segment Synopsis: The group assesses the effectiveness of Martin Luther King, Jr. as a figurehead for the civil rights struggle. Warren puts forward the view of a psychologist who considers King's emotional appeals to be "pathological," but the group believes that King is an effective leader, in spite of his lack of sophistication.

Keywords: Birmingham (Ala.); Dr. Kenneth Clark; Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.; Montgomery (Ala.)

Subjects: African American leadership; African Americans--Attitudes; African Americans--Case studies; African Americans--Conduct of life; African Americans--Social conditions; Black Muslims; Christian philosophy; Civil rights movements--United States; Civil rights workers; Protest movements; Radicalism

01:12:11 - Nonviolence to a point

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Partial Transcript: I found, uh--I didn't have to look for it, it was there, in the November before Kennedy's death...

Segment Synopsis: The group comments on the notion that the nonviolent strategy practiced by most civil rights activists might actually give way to violence if those activists are frustrated enough with their slow progress.

Keywords: Brinkmanship; Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.; Howard University; John F. Kennedy; Non-violence; Ralph Abernathy

Subjects: Black Muslims; Civil rights movements--United States; Nonviolence; Passive resistance.; Protest movements.; Violence

01:17:00 - Patriotism and pro-segregationists

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Partial Transcript: Mr. Warren, sometimes I toy with the idea, when I, when I'm subject, subjected to the situations around me...

Segment Synopsis: The group discusses political identities that they see in the South, and why that region has been slow to accept progressive change in race relations.

Keywords: Abraham Lincoln; African revolutions; Emancipation Proclamation; Gunnar Myrdal; James Baldwin; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP); Ralph Ellison; The Fire Next Time

Subjects: African Americans--Conduct of life; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Southern States.; Discrimination; Patriotism; Racism; Segregation; United States--Race relations.; Universities and colleges; Universities and colleges, Black; Voting age

01:37:10 - Timing of the movement

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Partial Transcript: Well, that brings up another question.

Segment Synopsis: The group members give their historical explanations of why the civil rights movement has progressed as it has, and not in earlier years.

Keywords: Brown vs. Board of Education; History; Korean War; March on Washington, 1943; World War II

Subjects: Civil rights demonstrations; Civil rights movements--United States; Korean War, 1950-1953; Middle class; World War, 1939-1945

01:47:39 - The fraught meaning of gradualism

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Partial Transcript: Sociologically, back in history we see this, that, uh, such movements must accelerate or expire.

Segment Synopsis: Warren and the group debate extensively on the applicability of the word "gradualism" to the civil rights movement, and whether or not a strategy based on the idea of gradualism would be acceptable to African Americans.

Keywords: "All Deliberate Speed"; 1964 Civil Rights Act; Abraham Lincoln; Clarence M. Mitchell, Jr.; David Lawrence; Gordon B. Hancock; Gradualism; March on Washington, 1963; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP); Strom Thurmond; Tokenism; U.S. News & World Report

Subjects: African American college students; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Southern states; Civil rights movements--United States; Civil rights--Law and legislation; Education; Protest movements; Segregation; Semantics

02:13:43 - American icons

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Partial Transcript: Let me, uh, uh--this question is similar to things like that.

Segment Synopsis: The group discusses iconic American historical figures such as Abraham Lincoln and Thomas Jefferson, engaging the question of how much reverence African Americans should have for these figures in light of their actual beliefs.

Keywords: Black bourgeoisie; Conspicuous consumption; Emancipation Proclamation; George Washington; John F. Kennedy; Lincoln Memorial, Washington (D.C.); March on Washington; Thomas Jefferson

Subjects: African American--History; Civil rights demonstrations; Civil rights movements--United States; Founding fathers of the United States; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865 --Views on race relations; Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Views on slavery; National monuments; Racism

02:19:25 - African Americans and Christianity

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Partial Transcript: And now you find Negroes who will say Christianity has been the great trap.

Segment Synopsis: The group talks about the role of religion and Christianity in black culture. Faith had been criticized by some black social critics at the time, but the group defends its importance.

Keywords: Holy Bible; James Baldwin; Karl Marx

Subjects: African Americans--Religion; Christianity; Religion; Religion and politics--Southern states

02:24:39 - Squaring the knowledge of history with the need for action

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Partial Transcript: That's, um--I feel why, why I brought that up that line of thought originally...

Segment Synopsis: The group acknowledges the idea that the African American freedom struggle must maintain an awareness of American history as it relates to the movement.

Keywords: Abraham Lincoln; George Washington; Jesus Christ; Thomas Jefferson

Subjects: African American leaders; Civil rights movements--United States; Historians; History

02:30:22 - The sincerity of civil rights leadership

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Partial Transcript: I'd like to point this out--I, I ,I don't think this has been pointed out...

Segment Synopsis: The group addresses the problem they see in the civil rights movement of leaders' self-interest and opportunism. They stress that participants in the struggle for equality must act with passion and selflessness.

Keywords: Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.; Opportunism; Revolutionary politics; Self-aggrandizement; United States Armed Forces

Subjects: African American leaders; African Americans--Conduct of life; African Americans--Societies, etc.; Civil rights movements--United States; Civil rights workers

02:34:03 - Assessing Dr. King and nonviolence

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Partial Transcript: Well, I just want to ask this final question.

Segment Synopsis: The group looks at the persona and activism of Dr. King, discussing how deserving he is of the nation's admiration. They also talk about the strategy of nonviolence and whether it can be maintained in every setting and situation in the United States.

Keywords: Alabama; Declaration of Independence; Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.; Mississippi; NAACP Youth Council; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP); Robert Penn Warren

Subjects: African American clergy.; African American leadership; African Americans--Religion.; Civil rights movements--United States; Equality; Nonviolence; Passive resistance; Priests, Black; Protest movements.