Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History

Interview with John Johnson, June 18, 2013

Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, University of Kentucky Libraries

 

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00:00:00 - Early life and education

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Partial Transcript: This is Nieta Wigginton. I'm here with Mr. John Johnson, the executive director of the...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson talks about his early life, including his education, his family, and his home town of Franklin, Kentucky.

Keywords: Evelyn Johnson; Frederick Harris; High school; Lincoln Elementary; Linnie Harris; School

Subjects: Bowling Green (Ky.); Childhood; Families; Franklin (Ky.); Segregation; Teachers

GPS: Franklin (Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 36.722925, -86.578445
00:02:12 - Deaths in the family / W.H. Story and school desegregation

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Partial Transcript: But, uh, I should tell you that the principal of the school, uh, Mr. Story, uh, W.H. Story was his name...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson talks about his family situation after the deaths of his parents, as well as the deaths of several other close relations. He also discusses W. H. Story, a black administrator who was supposed to become assistant principal after school integration in Franklin, Kentucky. Johnson states that he feels Story was unfairly kept from that position.

Keywords: Assistant principals; Community; Crying; Death; Education; Employment; Fort Smith (Va.); Free lunches; Godparents; Grandparents; Great Aunts; Great Uncles; Initials; Integration; L&N Railroad; Mr. Brooks; Names; Principals; W. H. Story

Subjects: Atwood, Rufus B., 1897-; Education; Franklin (Ky.); Segregation; Teachers

GPS: Franklin (Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 36.722925, -86.578445
00:06:28 - Becoming president of the Franklin, Kentucky NAACP chapter / positive influence of teachers

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Partial Transcript: Today, not many young people would go to a school board meeting. And you mentioned that you...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses how he became the president of his local chapter of the NAACP as a young man.

Keywords: Board meetings; City council; Community involvement; Educators; Leadership; Mr. Brooks; NAACP; Reverend Grant Coleman; Role models; Student council; Student government; W.H. Story

Subjects: African Americans; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Teachers

GPS: Franklin (Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 36.722925, -86.578445
00:09:56 - The importance of voting

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Partial Transcript: Tell us then why the vote is so important, because sometimes we say it's just my vote, it's just...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses the importance of voting, and his belief that every vote counts.

Keywords: Campaign managers; City council; Elections; NAACP; O. Neal Torrance (??); School board; Votes; Voting; Voting empowerment campaign

Subjects: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

00:11:11 - African American political representation and education

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Partial Transcript: Mr. Johnson, can you tell me some of the strategies that you used as a 19-year-old...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses his efforts to promote the inclusion of more African Americans as teachers and administrators in the local schools. He also talks about some of the ways that African Americans would take action in their communities.

Keywords: Administrators; Churches; Faculty; Head Start programs; Low income students; Money; NAACP; Political candidates; Politics; School boards; Social groups; Strategy; Students

Subjects: African American students; African American teachers; Education; Elections; Franklin (Ky.); National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

GPS: Franklin (Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 36.722925, -86.578445
00:14:58 - Working in a factory / integration of the swimming pool in Franklin, Kentucky

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Partial Transcript: So you graduate from high school. What were you planning to become?

Segment Synopsis: Johnson tells how he obtained a job working as a custodian at a factory after he graduated from high school. He also talks about his activities at that time as President of the local chapter of the NAACP. This included lobbying for the integration of the local swimming pool.

Keywords: Courthouses; Custodians; Factories; Hearings; Integration; Janitors; Job interviews; Kentucky Commission on Human Rights; NAACP; Swimming pools

Subjects: African Americans; Franklin (Ky.); Marriage; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Segregation

GPS: Franklin (Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 36.722925, -86.578445
00:18:39 - Training within the NAACP / Lawrence Rainey's candidacy for sheriff

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Partial Transcript: How were you learning how to do that? So, you work at the NAACP... it's a small, small town...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson talks about the pamphlets he was sent by the NAACP to help him learn how to run a local chapter. He discusses Lawrence Rainey, a sheriff who was notorious for violence against African Americans in Mississippi, and who also ran for sheriff in Franklin, Kentucky. He shares how the local NAACP opposed his candidacy for sheriff, and describes meeting him in person.

Keywords: "Freedom Summer"; Cowboy boots; Laws; Mayors; Meetings; Mississippi Burning (movie); Murder; Newspapers; Police chiefs; Training; Voter registration

Subjects: Civil rights workers; Kennedy, Robert F., 1925-1968; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Philadelphia (Miss.); Rainey, Lawrence, 1923-2002

GPS: Philadelphia (Miss.)
Map Coordinates: 32.771976, -89.112339
00:25:45 - Harassment while working at the factory

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Partial Transcript: Now we talk about how he wasn't able to transition his job to Franklin County...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson talks about the harassment he was subjected to while working at a factory, and how it eventually caused him to quit his job there. He states that he did not report this harassment to the Commission on Human Rights.

Keywords: Abuse; Factories; Harassment; Injuries; Joking; KKK; Kentucky Institute for Community Development; Newspapers

Subjects: Franklin (Ky.); Kennedy, Robert F., 1925-1968; King, Martin Luther, Jr. 1929-1968; Ku Klux Klan (1915- ); Simpson County (Ky.)

GPS: Franklin (Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 36.722925, -86.578445
00:29:44 - Work as a training coordinator / discrimination at the Citadel Hotel

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Partial Transcript: They gave me a job as a training coordinator for the Kentucky Institute for Community Development...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses his work as a training coordinator with the Kentucky Institute of Community Development. He explains some of his work, including teaching community leaders in economically disadvantaged areas how to organize meetings and apply for grants. He also tells how the Citadel Hotel initially didn't allow the NAACP or local African Americans to have meetings there.

Keywords: Eastern Kentucky; Kentucky Institute for Community Development; Meetings; Money; NAACP; Poverty; The Citadel Hotel (Hazard, Ky.); Training; Training coordinators; War on Poverty

Subjects: Hazard (Ky.); National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

GPS: Hazard (Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 37.249734, -83.197060
00:33:29 - Community development in Bowling Green and surrounding counties / work with a marketing firm in New York City

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Partial Transcript: Then did you stay in Lexington, or did you move on then to another state, another position?

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses his move to Bowling Green and his work to fund day cares, senior citizen programs, and other community serviced both there and in the surrounding counties. He also talks about his work with a marketing firm in New York, which marketed specifically to black customers.

Keywords: Advertisements; Black buying power; Black pride; Camel cigarettes; Cigarettes; Colgate-Palmolive; Community action programs; Community programs; Joe Hornby; Marketing research firms; OEO; Office of Economic Opportunity; Outreach programs; Pinkett, Brown and Black; Samples; Subsidized housing

Subjects: Bowling Green (Ky.); Marketing; New York (N.Y.)

GPS: Bowling Green (Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 36.990762, -86.441460
00:39:10 - The Black Pride movement and learned feelings of inferiority / Housing discrimination in New York

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Partial Transcript: But you mentioned you there during the uh, the time period when the movement was Black Pride.

Segment Synopsis: Johnson states that as a child in Kentucky, he was taught to feel inferior to whites. He describes an incident in which he was arrested for talking back to a white man. He also shares how he was discriminated against in New York when looking for a house.

Keywords: Arrests; Black Pride movement; Black pride; Discrimination; Harassment; Housing; Inferiority; Police; Prisons; Public housing; Restaurants

Subjects: African Americans; Black power; Discrimination in housing; Harlem (New York, N.Y.); New York (N.Y.); Racism

GPS: Harlem (New York, N.Y.)
Map Coordinates: 40.811471, -73.946228
00:45:15 - Harlem, New York / Percy Sutton

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Partial Transcript: I, my first visit to Harlem, I had been there for a few months and had never had a chance to get up to Harlem...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses his first visit to Harlem, in New York City. He mentions the Apollo Theater and Percy Sutton, its owner, who was also a prominent member of the NAACP. He tells how Sutton received the prestigious Spingarn Medal at the theater, and shares his reasons for wanting to have the ceremony there.

Keywords: Apollo Theater; Colonel Sanders; KFC; Kentucky Fried Chicken; NAACP; Percy Sutton; Spingarn Medal

Subjects: Harlem (New York, N.Y.); National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; New York (N.Y.)

GPS: Harlem (New York, N.Y.)
Map Coordinates: 40.811276, -73.946314
00:47:52 - Work in Jefferson County, Kentucky / a mayoral campaign in Louisville

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Partial Transcript: Well you, you mentioned NAACP. Did you stay involved in the NAA-- NAACP when you left Kentucky...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson shares why he turned down a position in Ohio to work in Louisville instead. He talks about his work within the lowest income area in Jefferson County, then tells how he became the associate director of the Louisville and Jefferson County Human Relations Commisssion. He also discusses his role in his friend's campaign to become mayor of Louisville

Keywords: A.D. King; African Methodist Episcopal Church; Busing; Desegregation; Elections; Integration; Louisville and Jefferson County Human Relations Commission; Mayors; Ministers; Money; Reverend Leo Lesser; Training department; Youth regional director

Subjects: Columbus (Ohio.); Jefferson County (Ky.); Louisville (Ky.); National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Poverty; Segregation

GPS: Louisville (Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 38.254358, -85.752411
00:52:28 - School desegregation and busing in Louisville

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Partial Transcript: It was an interesting period. And uh, so I, I worked there...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson talks about the effort to desegregate schools in Louisville, and the strong local opposition against it.

Keywords: Bussing; Louise Day Hicks; Protests; Save Our Community Schools; Schools

Subjects: Boston (Mass.); Education; Ku Klux Klan (1915- )--Kentucky; Louisville (Ky.); Racism

GPS: Louisville (Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 38.254358, -85.752411
00:54:06 - Laken Cosby

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Partial Transcript: You have spoken to me previously off-camera about a Mr. Laken Cosby, who worked with, uh, the desegregation.

Segment Synopsis: Johnson talks about his colleague Laken Cosby, who was selected to deal with housing discrimination in Louisville. He also mentions his son, Dr. Kevin Cosby. He talks about Laken's activism related to both school and neighborhood integration.

Keywords: Desegregation; Galen Martin; Housing; Integration; Kevin Cosby; Laken Cosby; School boards; Testing

Subjects: Discrimination in housing; Louisville (Ky.); Segregation

GPS: Louisville (Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 38.254358, -85.752411
00:57:21 - Becoming state president of the NAACP / affirmative action in the Kentucky State Police

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Partial Transcript: This is Naita Wigginton with Mr. John Johnson. We are now doing tape two...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson shares how he became the president of the Kentucky branch of the NAACP. He talks about the lack of diversity in the Kentucky State Police, and the work that the Kentucky NAACP did to implement an affirmative action plan within the police force.

Keywords: Affirmative action; Eastern Kentucky; Fuhrman Knox (??); Governors; Jobs; LEEA; Law enforcement; NAACP; Police officers; State police department

Subjects: Brown, John Y. (John Young) Jr., 1933-; King, Martin Luther, Jr. 1929-1968; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

01:01:06 - The University of Kentucky's investments in South Africa / integration of university school boards in Kentucky

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Partial Transcript: Uh, when we talked about Kentucky divesting monies in S-- from South Africa...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses the Kentucky NAACP's role in persuading the University of Kentucky to no longer invest in South Africa. He also talks briefly about the struggle to integrate school boards and other administrative positions of higher learning in Kentucky.

Keywords: Black administrators; Department of Health, Education and Welfare; Integration; Investments; NAACP; Wall Street Journal

Subjects: Brown, John Y. (John Young) Jr., 1933-; Chandler, Happy, 1898-1991; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Racism; Segregation; South Africa; University of Kentucky; University of Louisville

GPS: University of Kentucky, Lexington (Ky.)
Map Coordinates: 38.030752, -84.503832
01:05:30 - Clarence Mitchell, Jr., and other leaders of the national NAACP

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Partial Transcript: Who were some of the national leaders in the NAACP that you worked with to get, um, policies changed?

Segment Synopsis: Johnson talks about Clarence Mitchell Jr., a lobbyist for the NAACP, and his influential family. He also briefly discusses Roy Wilkins, another leader of the NAACP.

Keywords: Conventions; Ebony Magazine; Leaders; Leadership; Lobbyists; NAACP youth movement; Orators; Parren Mitchell; Roy Wilkins

Subjects: King, Martin Luther, Jr. 1929-1968; Louisville (Ky.); Mitchell, Clarence M. (Clarence Maurice), 1911-1984; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

01:09:17 - Assassinations of the 1960's

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Partial Transcript: You had shared, um, briefly before, you mentioned in passing, uh, that President Kennedy was assassinated.

Segment Synopsis: Johnson shares his opinion that Martin Luther King Jr.'s assassination killed a movement, as well as killing a person. He discusses the death of Medgar Evers. He also talks about the deaths of John F. Kennedy and Robert Kennedy. He talks about the effects that these assassinations had on people who were involved in the civil rights movement.

Keywords: Assassinations; Death; Field directors; Incarceration rates; Inequality; Money; Murders; NAACP; W.C. Patton

Subjects: Civil rights movements--United States; Evers, Medgar Wiley, 1925-1963; Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald), 1917-1963; Kennedy, Robert F., 1925-1968; King, Martin Luther, Jr. 1929-1968; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

01:15:30 - The death of Emmett Till and its effects

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Partial Transcript: Now when you mentioned that, getting off the sidewalk because a white woman was coming down...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson talks briefly about the death of Emmett Till, and the effect that this had on African Americans at that time.

Keywords: "Mental slavery"; Confrontations; Eye contact; Inferiority; Slavery

Subjects: Assassination; Till, Emmett, 1941-1955

01:16:52 - Voting campaigns of the NAACP / an NAACP float at the Kentucky Derby's Pegasus Parade

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Partial Transcript: Mr. Johnson, you used the analogy with mental slavery versus physical slavery. There was an NAACP um, poster...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses various voting campaigns and slogans of the NAACP. He tells how the first African American mayor of Selma, Alabama was elected through this. He also mentions a float that the NAACP entered into the Kentucky Derby's Pegasus Parade, which honored the black jockeys who have won the Derby.

Keywords: Campaigns; Edmund Pettus Bridge; Elections; Floats; Grants; History; Kentucky Derby; Mayor; NAACP; Posters; Slogans; Themes; Voting

Subjects: Alabama; Kentucky Derby; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Selma (Ala.)

GPS: Selma (Ala.)
Map Coordinates: 32.407936, -87.020645
01:21:34 - A memorial for John Brown at Harper's Ferry

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Partial Transcript: And I've heard you're, you're, very creative...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson briefly discusses Thelma Daley and her role in examining African American history. He also discusses W.E.B. Dubois' efforts to place a plaque commemorating John Brown at Harper's Ferry, West Virginia, and how the modern NAACP was able to do so.

Keywords: CSX Railroad; Crisis Magazine; NAACP; Niagara Movement; Plaques; Reenactments; Thelma Daley

Subjects: African Americans--History; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963; Harpers Ferry (W. Va.); Johnson, James Weldon, 1871-1938; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

GPS: Harpers Ferry (W. Va.)
Map Coordinates: 39.325633, -77.738228
01:27:54 - The importance of reenactments and demonstrations / controversy over the Confederate flag in South Carolina

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Partial Transcript: So, Mr. Johnson, why are the reenactments important?

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses the importance of history, reenactments and demonstrations, giving several examples. He discusses the NAACP protests against the Confederate flag flying above the South Carolina state capitol building, and the arrangements the organization made with both national and local police when staging a protest.

Keywords: "Count them All"; Confederate flag; Confederates; Demonstrations; Elections; FBI; Lynchings; Marches; NAACP; Police; Reenactments; Rodney King; Sacramento (Calif.); Security; Snipers; South Carolina; Sugarcane; the White House

Subjects: African Americans--History; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

01:32:35 - Demonstrations in Washington D.C.

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Partial Transcript: You were saying there were some demonstrations around the White House area?

Segment Synopsis: Johnson talks about some of the demonstrations that he participated in in Washington D.C., including some in front of the White House itself. He also briefly discusses the rules and regulations for protesting in Washington.

Keywords: Afaieis (??); Apartheid; Arrests; Bakke decision; Lynching; Protests; Regulations; Rules; Silent marches; South Africa; Supreme Court; Tennis players; The White House

Subjects: Civil rights demonstrations; Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963; Johnson, James Weldon, 1871-1938; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Washington (D.C.)

GPS: Washington (D.C.)
Map Coordinates: 38.908133, -77.028580
01:34:48 - The funeral arrangements of Rosa Parks

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Partial Transcript: One of the things that, uh, it wasn't really a demonstration, but one of my last responsibilities at the NAACP's national office was...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson talks about the death of Rosa Parks, her influence within the civil rights movement, and the funeral services in Montgomery, Alabama, Detroit, Michigan, and Washington, D.C. that were held for her.

Keywords: Airplanes; Bruce Gordon; Buses; Condoleezza Rice; Courts; Funeral services; Funerals; NAACP; Southwest Airlines

Subjects: King, Martin Luther, Jr. 1929-1968; Montgomery (Ala.); National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Parks, Rosa, 1913-2005; Southern Christian Leadership Conference

GPS: Montgomery (Ala.)
Map Coordinates: 32.366623, -86.296234
01:42:07 - Rosa Parks / Daisy Bates

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Partial Transcript: Can you tell us more about what the NAACP had been and is doing historically to prepare people...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses Rosa Parks and Daisy Bates. He points out that most leaders within the civil rights movement were ordinary people, and not at all wealthy.

Keywords: "Little Rock Nine"; Buses; Ernest Green

Subjects: Bates, Daisy; Education; Montgomery (Ala.); National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Parks, Rosa, 1913-2005

01:45:04 - Notable women of the NAACP

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Partial Transcript: You've mentioned, uh, two influential women who were part of that time period of the civil rights movement.

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses some of the female leaders of the NAACP.

Keywords: Althea Simmons; Daisy Lampkin; Director of training; Lawyers; Lobbyists; Myrlie Evers; NAACP

Subjects: African Americans--Civil rights; Civil rights movements--United States; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Women civil rights workers

01:48:14 - NAACP collaboration with other organizations / Ben Chavis

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Partial Transcript: When you mentioned the NAACP, uh, there are other organizations that were also, uh, involved in social action...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses the NAACP's collaboration with various other civil rights and labor groups, such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, the National Urban League, and AFL-CIO. He also discusses Ben Chavis's work with gang members in Los Angeles.

Keywords: Bill Oliver; Bill Pollett; Collaboration; Gangs; Joe Laurie (??); NAACP; Organizations; Roy Wilkins; SCLC; Whitney Young

Subjects: AFL-CIO; Chavis, Ben, 1948-; Labor unions; Los Angeles (Calif.); National Urban League; Southern Christian Leadership Conference

GPS: Los Angeles (Calif.)
Map Coordinates: 34.059486, -118.234863
01:54:23 - Young leaders and activists within the NAACP

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Partial Transcript: When you mention empowering the next generation, particularly uh, young black males, you've had a um... imprint...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses several younger leaders and workers within the NAACP, including Jeff Johnson, Kweisi Mfume, and Jamal Bryant.

Keywords: Empowerment Temple; Gangster rap; Hip-hop; Jamal Bryant; Jeff Johnson; Kweisi Mfume; NAACP Youth Council; Russ Simmons; Young African Americans; Young people

Subjects: African American men; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

01:58:46 - Various civil rights demonstrations

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Partial Transcript: When you mentioned, uh, getting out there and getting out there with people...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson shares anecdotes about several demonstrations that he participated in as a part of the NAACP.

Keywords: Buses; Caps; Dye; Hats; Marches; Money; Music; NAACP; Rain; Rap music; Silent marches; South Carolina; Voting; Washington D.C.

Subjects: Civil rights demonstrations; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

02:03:21 - C. DeLores Tucker and the effects of rap music

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Partial Transcript: But DeLores had done a lot of organizing, uh, trying to get people in the record industry...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses C. DeLores Tucker's fight against rap music, and shares his own thoughts on the subject.

Keywords: "Mental slavery"; Culture; Music; Rap; Rap artists; Respect; Sony Music Corporation; Young people

Subjects: Rap (Music); Tucker, C. DeLores

02:05:33 - Reasons to return to Kentucky / the National Great Blacks in Wax Museum / Benjamin Hooks

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Partial Transcript: Why did you leave a national organization to come back to Kentucky to stand up for peoples' rights in your home state?

Segment Synopsis: Johnson shares his reasons for returning to Kentucky to work for the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights. He discusses his work for the National Great Blacks in Wax Museum. He also talks about his mentor Benjamin Hooks.

Keywords: Family; NAACP; National Great Blacks in Wax Museum; Volunteering; Volunteers; Wax figures; Wax museums

Subjects: Baltimore (Md.); Hooks, Benjamin L. (Benjamin Lawson), 1925-2010; Kentucky Commission on Human Rights; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

GPS: The National Great Blacks in Wax Museum, Baltimore (Md.)
Map Coordinates: 39.311863, -76.596776
02:09:55 - Father's Day and the importance of black male role models

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Partial Transcript: You shared with us were many uh, wonderful men and women...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson tells how he spent Father's Day in church with his children, and describes the importance of black male role models.

Subjects: African American men; Leadership; Rap (Music)

02:12:09 - African American incarceration rates / voting rights for felons

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Partial Transcript: You say many of them who are not in jail shouldn't, who are in jail shouldn't be...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses the disproportionate number of African Americans in Kentucky prisons. He talks about the lack of voting rights for felons in Kentucky, and why he feels that state politicians have failed to address these issues.

Keywords: Addiction; Appeals; Children; Drug use; Drugs; Incarceration rates; Jail; Parenting; Prisoners; Voting; Voting rights

Subjects: Drug abuse; Drug addiction; Education; Politicians; Politicians--Kentucky; Poverty; Prisons

02:16:30 - Lack of college readiness in African American students / race discrimination and other current issues

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Partial Transcript: And in terms of uh, the other issues... when you look at a state like Kentucky... if you could just...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses the lack of equal education, and how many African American students are not college-ready. He also mentions that many of the complaints to the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights are related to racial discrimination in housing and hiring.

Keywords: Careers; Churches; College; Complaints; Disabilities; Discipline; Discrimination; High school; Hiring; Opportunities; Race; Single mothers

Subjects: African Americans--Kentucky; Education; Kentucky; Kentucky Commission on Human Rights; Race discrimination; Women

02:20:27 - The importance of documenting the civil rights movement / the reward of human rights work

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Partial Transcript: Mr. Johnson, you partnered with Lisa Higgins Hord at the University of Kentucky...

Segment Synopsis: Johnson discusses the importance of documenting the history of civil rights activists, past and present. He also discusses the rewards of working for human rights. The interview is concluded.

Keywords: Contributions; Documentation; Finances; History; Life histories; Money; Oral histories; Progress; Rewards; Volunteers

Subjects: Civil rights movements--United States; Civil rights workers