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00:00:00 - Coming North from Savannah, Georgia

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Partial Transcript: And, um, as I think I mentioned over the phone what I'd like to do is start asking you again about your family background...

Segment Synopsis: Campbell recalls his family's decision to move from Savannah, Georgia to Baltimore, Maryland in 1917 and how whites in the South tried to prevent Blacks from migrating. He describes how his mother insisted on moving from Baltimore to Philadelphia because she liked the houses in Philadelphia better. He then provides details of the neighborhood along North 57th Street and how his father started his own real estate business in West Philadelphia during the 1920s.

Keywords: 228 North 57th Street (Philadelphia, Pa); 240 North 57th Street, (Philadelphia, Pa); 30th Street Station (Philadelphia, Pa); Atlantic City, New Jersey; Baltimore, Maryland; Savannah, Georgia

Subjects: African American business enterprises; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Housing.; African Americans--Southern States.; Migration, Internal.

00:05:51 - Clubs for Southern newcomers in Philadelphia

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Partial Transcript: And, uh, so I stayed there and, uh, I met--you, you know, we have different clubs and organizations, and you were meeting people that was migrating to the North.

Segment Synopsis: Campbell speaks about how churches organized clubs and associations to help southern migrants better transition to their new surroundings. He explains that this is how many people made friends after coming north. Some of these clubs aimed to connect people who had migrated from the same states in the South. Young people associated through the Baptist Young Peoples Union.

Keywords: B.Y.P.U. (Baptist Young Peoples Union); Georgia Club; North Carolina Club; South Carolina Club

Subjects: African American churches; African Americans--Social life and customs.; African Americans--Societies, etc.; African Americans--Southern States.; Migration, Internal.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social life and customs.

00:06:51 - The impact of the 1929 stock market crash on his father's real estate business

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Partial Transcript: And, uh, then about in 19--my father was doing quite well in the real estate business, and in 1929, the crash wiped him out completely.

Segment Synopsis: Campbell describes the economic crash in 1929 and how it decimated his father's real estate business, where Campbell worked at the time.

Keywords: 1929 Stock Market Crash; Great Depression; Real estate business (Philadelphia)

Subjects: African American business enterprises; African Americans--Economic conditions.; Depressions--1929.

00:07:42 - Campbell's move from Republican to Democrat

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Partial Transcript: I had, in 19--I’m a little ahead of my story. In 1924, I was a Republican and we had a Republican mayor, J. Hampton Moore. And in 1926, uh, we had, uh, a big political fight. And I was a novice. But, uh, it was a fight for the United States Senate. George Wharton Pepper, Gifford Pinchot and William Vare.

Segment Synopsis: Campbell describes how he began his political career as a Republican, but transitioned to the newly fledged Democratic Party in Philadelphia after the 1928 elections. He goes on to recall a number of key figures involved in politics during this era.

Keywords: Alfred Smith (Presidential candidate, 1926); Crystal Bird Fauset; Democratic Party; Dr. John Rice; Dr. W T. Grinnage; Edward Thomas; Fletcher Amos; Franklin Delano Roosevelt; George Wharton Pepper; Gifford Pinchot (Pennsylvania governor, 1923-27, 1931-35); Homer Brown; J. Austin Ayres; John Holmes; Joseph Rainey; Marshall L. Shepard, Jr.; Republican Party (Philadelphia); Robert N.C. Nix, Sr.; Vare Machine; Walker K. Jackson; Walter Gay; William Allmand; Wilson Jones

Subjects: African Americans--Politics and government.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Politicians

00:15:15 - His family and other Southern migrants' motivations for moving North

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Partial Transcript: Um, now when you all came up in 1917, and that was the--I--did you come up in the summer?

Segment Synopsis: Campbell discusses what his family had heard about the North prior to migrating, and people's motivations for moving North. He mentions the Pennsylvania Railroad sending railroads cars south for migrant workers to come north.

Keywords: 1917; Armistice--World War I; Baltimore, Maryland; Impressions of migrants; Labor recruitment; Migration from the South; Motivations to move North; Pennsylvania Railroad; Railroad workers

Subjects: African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Southern States.; Migration, Internal.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.

00:18:02 - His father's inspiration for going north

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Partial Transcript: Huh. So what, what inspired your father then, and mother, to pack up and head north?

Segment Synopsis: Campbell relates how life in Savannah was for his mother and father, who worked in a lumber mill. He recounts how his mother was the driving force behind the family's move north to Baltimore. He reveals that it was also his mother who insisted on moving to Philadelphia once the family was settled in Baltimore because she liked the idea of having a home with a front porch.

Keywords: Baltimore, Maryland; Edgar Campbell; Home ownership--Philadelphia; Lumber mills; Motivations to move North; Parents; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Savannah, Georgia

Subjects: African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Housing.; African Americans--Southern States.; Migration, Internal.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.

GPS: Savannah, Georgia.
Map Coordinates: 32.060793, -81.099868
00:22:17 - His father's businesses in Baltimore and the real estate business in Philadelphia

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Partial Transcript: And, uh, so, they immediately proceeded to--Father always wanted a business and, see, when he was in Savannah, even though he was working, he used to rent out horses, and mules, and wagons to people on the street, you know.

Segment Synopsis: Campbell talks about the businesses his father started in Baltimore and Philadelphia, including a real estate business that remained successful in West Philadelphia until the stock market crash in 1929. Campbell attributes this to southern Blacks' desire to own their own homes, in contrast with Old Philadelphians. He typically sold white-owned houses. They lived among many white families, including Italian-Americans, but faced no discrimination.

Keywords: 1920s; 1929 Stock Market Crash; African American businesses--Philadelphia, Pa.; Baltimore, Maryland; Education; Home ownership--Philadelphia; Isadore Maximilian Martin, Sr. (realtor, NAACP branch president); Italian Americans--Philadelphia; Old Philadelphians (O.P.s); Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Real estate business (Philadelphia, Pa.); Religion; Savannah, Georgia; Southerners; West Philadelphia, Pa.

Subjects: African American business enterprises; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Housing.; Depressions--1929.; United States--Race relations.

00:28:12 - How "Old Philadelphians" worked for white Philadelphians

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Partial Transcript: Number two, they felt in a lot of instances, that they were better than the people that was migrating up here from down South.

Segment Synopsis: Campbell talks about how Black "Old Philadelphians," who had lived in the city for generations, felt they were better than the southern newcomers. He claims that this feeling was related to their working for white employers.

Keywords: Addison Street (Philadelphia, Pa.); Domestic work; Isadore Maximilian Martin, Sr. (realtor, NAACP branch president); Naudain Street (Philadelphia, Pa.); Old Philadelphians (O.P.s); Racial resentment

Subjects: African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Social conditions.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.

00:29:14 - Churches' role in perpetuating divisions among Black Philadelphians

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Partial Transcript: In fact, in fact, there’s a church here, I don’t know about now, I haven’t been in it in there in a long time, First African Baptist Church, 16th and Christian. They even sit you, seat you according to your complexion.

Segment Synopsis: Campbell discusses how churches perpetuated divisions among Blacks in Philadelphia, including the First African Baptists Church on 16th and Christian Streets, which seated members according to their complexion.

Keywords: "Colorism"; 16th and Christian (Philadelphia, Pa.); First African Baptist Church (Philadelphia, Pa.); Racial resentment; Segregation in Philadelphia

Subjects: African American churches; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.

00:31:16 - On the differences between "Old Philadelphians" and southern newcomers

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Partial Transcript: Everybody, the way I--a lot of the time, they, um, assumed--I don’t care where you came from, if you didn’t come from Philadelphia, you came from the country as far as they were concerned.

Segment Synopsis: Campbell discusses what characterized people coming up from the South and what the differences were between Old Philadelphians and the newcomers. Some O.P.s looked down with disdain on the southerners, viewing them as uneducated and ignorant. He explains the concept of “Mr. Charlie,” a nickname for the white man for whom many Blacks worked.

Keywords: "Colorism"; Chicago, Illinois; Greenhorns (inexperienced newcomers to the city); Impressions of migrants; Migration from the South; New York City, New York; Old Philadelphians (O.P.s); Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Segregation in Philadelphia; Southerners; “Mr. Charlie”

Subjects: African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions.; Migration, Internal.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.

00:35:32 - Disillusionment of migrants in the face of discrimination

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Partial Transcript: Yeah, and then again, the next thing is they had to, they had to, uh,-- they came north, and they were told, they were painted a beautiful picture of the North, everything wide open.

Segment Synopsis: Campbell describes how southern Blacks quickly became disillusioned with the North in the face of discrimination. He than explains how workers at Horn and Hardart's Restaurant would break dishes after Blacks used them, and how theaters tried to segregate their audiences.

Keywords: 1508 Market Street (Philadelphia, Pa.); 16th and Market (Philadelphia, Pa.); Child's Restaurant (Philadelphia, Pa.); Goldman Theater; Horn and Hardart's Restaurant (Philadelphia, Pa); John Francis Williams; Raymond Pace Alexander; Segregation in Philadelphia; Segregation: Motion Picture Houses; Segregation: Theaters; Stouffers Restaurant; West Philadelphia, Pa.

Subjects: African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions.; Migration, Internal.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Race discrimination.; United States--Race relations.

00:38:27 - The Equal Rights Bill of 1935 and discrimination in Philadelphia

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Partial Transcript: You know, that’s something I’d like to ask you about, is the Equal Rights Bill, 1935. I guess--

Segment Synopsis: Campbell talks about how Blacks protested discrimination and segregation in Philadelphia. He claims that the Equal Rights Bill of 1935 only had a small impact on the discrimination in Philadelphia. As a result, the NAACP became involved in litigation to bring suit when Blacks were refused service.

Keywords: Cecil B. Moore; Equal Rights Bill, 1935 (Pennsylvania); Greyhound Transportation; Hobson R. Reynolds; Isadore Maximilian Martin, Sr. (realtor, NAACP branch president); NAACP Philadelphia Branch; Raymond Pace Alexander; Standard Theater (1124-28 South Street)

Subjects: African Americans--Legal status, laws, etc.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions.; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Race discrimination.; United States--Race relations.

00:40:11 - Campbell's beginnings in politics and his switch to the Democratic Party

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Partial Transcript: Um, okay. Can you tell me how you, um, first got interested in politics?

Segment Synopsis: Campbell discusses his frustrations with the Republican Party and how he switched to the Democratic Party. He mentions that during the 1926 elections, he was motivated to remain Democrat by the promise of being appointed a committeeman in the Democratic Party.

Keywords: 138 City Hall (Philadelphia, Pa.); Department of Highway Safety; Director of Public Safety; George H. Holmes; Howard Henry; J. Hampton Moore ("Hampy", Mayor of Philadelphia, 1920-24); James T. Cortelyou (Philadelphia Director of Public Safety); W. Freeland Kendrick (Mayor of Philadelphia, 1924-28); West Philadelphia, Pa.

Subjects: African Americans--Politics and government.; Democratic Party (Pa.); Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Political parties.; Politicians; Republican Party (Pa.)

GPS: City Hall, Philadelphia, Pa.
Map Coordinates: 39°57'08.2
00:46:28 - On recruiting for the Democratic Party in the 1930s

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Partial Transcript: What year did you then change your registration?

Segment Synopsis: Campbell describes how hard it was to be a registered Democrat in Republican-controlled Philadelphia during the 1920s and '30s. He describes how members of the Republican Party would harass and threaten Democratic voters. In order to persuade voters to register as Democrats, the Party would often hold fundraisers to help pay the 25 cent poll tax necessary to register as a Democrat.

Keywords: Alfred Smith (Presidential candidate, 1926); Democratic Party; George Wharton Pepper; John O' Donnell; Poll taxes; Republican Party (Philadelphia); West Philadelphia; William Scott Vare

Subjects: African Americans--Politics and government.; Democratic Party (Pa.); Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Political parties.; Politicians; Republican Party (Pa.)

00:48:58 - Black politics in Philadelphia during the 1920s

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Partial Transcript: Now one of the things I’m very interested in is finding out as much as I can about Black politics in the city during the nineteen-teens and the twenties.

Segment Synopsis: Campbell describes the major Black politicians of the 1920s and how the political machines of the Republican and Democratic Parties operated. This includes the system of political patronage used to obtain jobs in Philadelphia.

Keywords: 9th Street (Philadelphia, Pa.); Amos Scott (first black magistrate in Philadelphia, elected in 1921); Atlantic Refining Company; Austin Norris (lawyer, newspaper publisher); Director of Public Safety; Edward Cox; Edward Henry (2nd black magistrate, appointed in 1925); Gene Rhodes; Herbert E. Millen; Howard Henry; John Asbury (African American lawyer, state representative); Mercer Lewis (lawyer, civic leader); Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Republican Party (Philadelphia); William Scott Vare

Subjects: African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Politics and government.; Democratic Party (Pa.); Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Political parties.; Politicians; Republican Party (Pa.)

00:51:54 - Black newspapers in the 1920s and '30s

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Partial Transcript: Did you ever read his newspaper, back during the ‘20s, or any of the other papers besides The Tribune?

Segment Synopsis: Campbell lists various Black newspapers published in the 1920s and '30s and talks about their reporting styles and extent of coverage. He claims that the Philadelphia Tribune was a dependable family paper, while the Pittsburgh Courier was more willing to publish news that the other papers would not publish.

Keywords: Arthur Lynch; Austin Norris (lawyer, newspaper publisher); Chicago, Illinois; David Stern (Publisher of the Philadelphia Public Ledger); Philadelphia Tribune; Pittsburgh Courier; Robert Vann; Savannah, Georgia; The Afro-American; The Philadelphia Defender; The Philadelphia Public Ledger

Subjects: African American newspapers.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.

00:54:25 - On how the Republican Party dispensed patronage and controlled the Black vote

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Partial Transcript: Hm. Now, um, so, you’d sort of dabbled in politics during the ‘20s, but really didn’t become active then until--

Segment Synopsis: Campbell talks about the Republican machine in Philadelphia and the system of patronage that existed. He describes the different Republican leaders in Philadelphia at that time, and how they exploited the shortage of Black jobs to gain votes by promising certain positions to Blacks.

Keywords: 12th Ward (Philadelphia, Pa.); 1928 Presidential election; 19th and Reid (Philadelphia, Pa.); 30th Ward (Philadelphia, Pa.); Alfred Smith (Presidential candidate, 1926); Amos Scott (first black magistrate in Philadelphia, elected in 1921); Charles McCoach (30th ward leader); City Hall (Philadelphia, Pa.); Democratic Party; Edward Cox; Edward Henry (2nd black magistrate, appointed in 1925); James Robinson (builder, constructed Dunbar Theater, rebuilt Brown and Stevens Bank); John "J.B." Summers; John Asbury (African American lawyer, state representative); Republican Party (Philadelphia); South Philadelphia; West Philadelphia; William Scott Vare

Subjects: African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Politics and government.; Democratic Party (Pa.); Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Political corruption; Political parties.; Politicians; Republican Party (Pa.)

01:00:58 - On Black Republican leader John Asbury

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Partial Transcript: Let me ask you a couple more questions about the early days, then, then sort of move into the, the rise of the Democratic Party.

Segment Synopsis: Campbell talks about how, in the wake of Amos Scott's death, John Asbury took control of the Black Republican Party, which would have profound effects on the rise of the Democratic Party. The Republican Party's decision to place Asbury on the bench over Edward Henry caused Henry to leave the Party and switch to the Democrats, bringing numerous Black voters with him.

Keywords: Amos Scott (first black magistrate in Philadelphia, elected in 1921); Democratic Party; Edward Cox; Edward Henry (2nd black magistrate, appointed in 1925); John Asbury (African American lawyer, state representative); Republican Party (Philadelphia); William Allmand; William Scott Vare

Subjects: African American leadership; African Americans--Politics and government.; Democratic Party (Pa.); Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Political parties.; Politicians; Republican Party (Pa.)

01:02:18 - The rise of the Democratic Party in Philadelphia in the 1930s

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Partial Transcript: The Republican Party decided they wanted to dump Ed Henry. They wanted were going to dump Ed Henry and put John Asbury on the bench. And that’s been when, Ed Henry came to us, and we figured that it would be to our advantage.

Segment Synopsis: Campbell describes how the Republican Party's decision to dump Ed Henry, who has switched parties, benefited the Democrats. He also talks about how Earnest "Daddy" Wright became the city's most prominent Black Republican.

Keywords: Amos Scott (first black magistrate in Philadelphia, elected in 1921); Austin Norris (lawyer, newspaper publisher); Crystal Bird Fauset; Democratic Party; Edward Henry (2nd black magistrate, appointed in 1925); Ernest Wright ("Daddy"); James Banniker; John "Jack" Kelly; John Asbury (African American lawyer, state representative); John R. K. Scott; Joseph Rainey; Mathew McCloskey; Republican Party (Philadelphia)

Subjects: African American leadership; African Americans--Politics and government.; Democratic Party (Pa.); Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Political parties.; Politicians; Republican Party (Pa.)

01:07:01 - On Philadelphia's Black Democratic leaders in the 1930s

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Partial Transcript: Now, when the, when the Democratic Party first began, when you were starting up, you know, uh, people like you and John Summers; you in West Philadelphia, John Summers in South Philadelphia...

Segment Synopsis: Campbell lists and describes the early organizers and driving forces behind the Democratic Party in Philadelphia.

Keywords: 30th Ward (Philadelphia, Pa.); Austin Norris (lawyer, newspaper publisher); Chicago, Illinois; Crystal Bird Fauset; David Stern (Publisher of the Philadelphia Public Ledger); Dr. Edward W. McCloskey; Edward M. "Eddie" Hazell; Eleanor Roosevelt; Emmett Guffy Miller; Franklin Delano Roosevelt; George Howard Earle, III (Governor of Pennsylvania, 1935-39); John "J.B." Summers; Joseph F. Guffey (United States Senator from Pennsylvania, 1935-47); Joseph Rainey; Marriage License Bureau; North Philadelphia; Pittsburgh Courier; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Republican Party (Philadelphia); Rev. Marshall L. Shepherd, Sr.; Robert N. C. Nix, Sr.; Russell M. Allen; South Philadelphia, Pa.; Thomas Logue; Vare Machine; West Philadelphia; William L. Dawson; William Scott Vare

Subjects: African American leadership; African Americans--Politics and government.; Democratic Party (Pa.); Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Political parties.; Politicians; Republican Party (Pa.)

01:16:54 - On 7th Ward boss Charles "Charlie" Hall

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Partial Transcript: Just, just as, as an assignment, can you tell me anything about Charlie Hall. Do you remember Charlie Hall?

Segment Synopsis: Campbell tells Hardy about Charlie Hall, a Republican Party leader. He also continues describing the political patronage system that was rampant among politicians.

Keywords: 138 City Hall (Philadelphia, Pa.); 21st Ward (Philadelphia, Pa.); 5th Ward (Philadelphia, Pa.); 7th Ward (Philadelphia, Pa.); Amos Scott (first black magistrate in Philadelphia, elected in 1921); Atlantic Refining Company; Charles Hall (7th Ward leader, 1920s); Democratic Party; Edward Cox; George H. Holmes; John Asbury (African American lawyer, state representative); Republican Party (Philadelphia); William Meehan; William Scott Vare

Subjects: African American leadership; African Americans--Politics and government.; Democratic Party (Pa.); Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Political corruption; Political parties.; Politicians; Republican Party (Pa.)

01:19:45 - William Vare and the Republican city machine

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Partial Transcript: Hm. Things really were, uh--when the, when, when the Vare machine was in, in control, it really was a--

Segment Synopsis: Campbell discusses the Vare Machine which controlled Philadelphia into the mid-1930s.The Vare Machine was a complex organization of Republican Party members, headed by William Vare and his family members. The organization, which was rife with corruption, graft, and nepotism, controlled the city of Philadelphia from the early twentieth century until the 1930s.

Keywords: Amos Harris; Ernest Wright ("Daddy"); Hobson R. Reynolds; James Robinson (builder, constructed Dunbar Theater, rebuilt Brown and Stevens Bank); North Carolina; Republican Party (Philadelphia); Vare Machine; William Meehan; William Scott Vare

Subjects: African Americans--Politics and government.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Political corruption; Political parties.; Politicians; Republican Party (Pa.)

01:22:28 - The 1934 elections

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Partial Transcript: Hm. Let me ask you a, another question about, uh, I guess it was 1934, that for the first time, uh, a lot of Blacks were slated for the state legislature, and go in.

Segment Synopsis: Campbell describes the state of the Republican Party in the 1934 elections and what concessions and strategies the party used to keep the Black vote.

Keywords: Democratic Party; Deputy Director of Public Safety; Herbert E. Millen; Hobson R. Reynolds; Marshall L. Shepard, Jr.; Republican Party; Samuel Holmes; Walker K. Jackson

Subjects: African Americans--Politics and government.; Democratic Party (Pa.); Elections; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Political parties.; Politicians; Republican Party (Pa.)

01:24:57 - G. Edward Dickerson

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Partial Transcript: Do you remember G. Edward Dickerson?

Segment Synopsis: Campbell recalls Black lawyer and businessman G. Edward Dickerson, who was a prominent Black lawyer and businessman during the 1910s. He represented the Colored Protective Association and was one of the first prominent Blacks to be named for a judgeship.

Keywords: Austin Norris (lawyer, newspaper publisher); Cheyney University (formerly Cheyney College and Cheyney Training School for Teachers); Colored Protective Association; G. Edward Dickerson; John Francis Williams; Leslie Pinkney Hill (principal of Cheyney Training School for Teachers, 1913-1951); Raymond Pace Alexander

Subjects: African American business enterprises; African American leadership; African Americans--Education.

01:26:54 - Southern migrants' political and social aspirations

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Partial Transcript: Let me ask you some, some final questions, then, about the migration, you know, and the, and the people coming up then.

Segment Synopsis: Campbell describes the social and political aspirations of southern Blacks. Many of them, after migrating north, wanted their own businesses and their own homes and were more business-oriented. Campbell claims that the Old Philadelphians wanted to maintain their social lives and jobs, and lacked the drive that the southern Blacks possessed. He continues on, using his father as an example.

Keywords: African American businesses--Philadelphia, Pa.; Broad Street Station (Philadelphia, Pa.); Franklin Delano Roosevelt; Home ownership—Philadelphia; Impressions of migrants; Migration from the South; Old Philadelphians (O.P.s); South Philadelphia, Pa.

Subjects: African Americans--Politics and government.; African Americans--Southern States.; Migration, Internal.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Politicians

01:35:41 - On attempts to create a southern Black businessman's association

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Partial Transcript: I know I got to let you go. Let me--just remembered something else. Uh, you said you had connections with Major Wright--

Segment Synopsis: Campbell expounds on past attempts to set up a southern Black business association and their failure due to the divisions between Old Philadelphians and southern migrants.

Keywords: African American businesses--Philadelphia, Pa.; Berean Savings and Loan Association; Brown and Stevens Bank (-1925); Chicago, Illinois; Citizens and Southern Bank (Philadelphia, Pa.); Georgia State Industrial College; John T. Gibson (Standard Theater, Gibson Theater); Major Richard R. Wright, Sr. ("R.R."); New York City, New York; Old Philadelphians (O.P.s)

Subjects: African American business enterprises; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Societies, etc.; African Americans--Southern States.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.