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00:00:07 - Childhood in South Carolina

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Partial Transcript: --of the family it was nine of us children; six boys and three girls. And we were born in South Carolina.

Segment Synopsis: Childs briefly discusses his early childhood, describes how his family sustained themselves in regards to food and housing, and explains how his father made money as a sharecropper while working for Andrew Stockman.

Keywords: Andrew Stockman; Corn; Cornmeal; Cotton; Cotton gins; Cows; Flour; Harvest; Meat; Mills; Pigs; Renting; Sharecropping; South Carolina; Wheat

Subjects: African American families; African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Housing.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Southern States.

00:02:48 - Early adult life in the South

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Partial Transcript: Then my mother passed away on the 26th of May in 1914. And I--my brother, my oldest brother, his wife passed away one year after my mother passed away.

Segment Synopsis: Childs talks about his early adult life in the South, including the deaths of relatives, growing crops in the fields, and his first experiences visiting Philadelphia and being exposed to a culinary career. He talks in depth about the impact of the boll weevil on farming, and the first home and job for himself and his wife.

Keywords: Andrew Stockman; Bales; Boll Weevil; Broad Street Station; Brothers; Clyde Fuller; Cooking; Cooks; Cotton; Florene Fuller; George; Greenwood County, South Carolina; Greenwood, South Carolina; Harrison School; J.B. Warden; Jake Stockman; Midvale Steel Works (Philadelphia, Pa.); Mothers; Oscar Holmes; Philadelphia (Pa.); Rented; Wanamaker's Department Store

Subjects: African American families; African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Housing.; African Americans--Social conditions.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.

GPS: Greenwood, South Carolina
Map Coordinates: 34.197427, -82.159742
00:09:47 - Working as a waiter in South Carolina

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Partial Transcript: But I had to stay in the house until I got a job because if I walked in the street like in the middle of the day and the officer seen me, and I couldn't prove that I had a job, they would lock me up.

Segment Synopsis: Childs discusses his job as a waiter at a boarding house run by Miss Havvy Allen. He talks about how he was hired after walking in illegally from the street, learning the tricks of the trade, transferring to a hotel, and befriending fellow waiter Willie Simpkins. Childs also recalls how White guests at the hotel would wipe down their silverware after he handled it.

Keywords: Boarders; Boarding houses; Glass; Havvy Allen; Moorland Hotel; Mr. Davis; Mrs. Davis; Waiters; Willie Simpkins

Subjects: African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Southern States.; Race discrimination.; Racism; United States--Race relations.

00:13:58 - The rape and murder of the Valentine girls in Abbeville, South Carolina

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Partial Transcript: So uh, I was wondering but if it was alright for me to say this. There were two girls that had came here. Valentine girls. That’s what I was getting ready to tell ya.

Segment Synopsis: Childs recalls, in detail, an incident where two sisters who did not move off the side of the street quick enough for a White woman passing by ended up raped and killed for their actions.

Keywords: Lynching; Rape; Sisters; Valentine girls; Walking canes; Whipped; White men

Subjects: African Americans--Crimes against.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Southern States.; Race discrimination.; Racism; United States--Race relations.

00:16:00 - Avoiding criminals on the way to church in Abbeville during adolescence

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Partial Transcript: We, uh, was kind of independent family. And I had three sisters. And whenever I got ready to take them to Sunday School before they got married--well two of them married here. One of them married in the South.

Segment Synopsis: Childs discusses how he carried a shotgun on the way to church to protect his sisters. He also reflects upon the injustice of the situation and recalls a conversation with his mother about White people's attitudes towards Blacks, where she describes how they refuse to treat the Blacks with respect yet force them to do service work.

Keywords: Damascus Baptist Church; Dusters; Highways; Horses; Lap rolls; Mothers; Phoenix, South Carolina; Rape; Shotguns; Sisters; South Carolina; Sunday school; Surrey; White boys; Woods

Subjects: African American churches; African American families; African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Crimes against.; African Americans--Social conditions.; Race discrimination.; Racism; United States--Race relations.

GPS: Damascus Baptist Church
Map Coordinates: 34.077912, -82.109300
00:20:03 - On the 1916 lynching of Anthony Crawford in Abbeville, South Carolina

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Partial Transcript: So, um--but even with that, everything went along alright. The people that actually rented fared better than the sharecropper.

Segment Synopsis: Childs tells a story about the murder of a sharecropper who had withheld cotton bales from his landowner.

Keywords: Abbeville,South Carolina; Arguments; Bales; Barrels; Cheating; Cotton; Death; East River Falls; Gin houses; Hanging; Harvest time; Horses; Sharecroppers; Valentine girls

Subjects: African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Crimes against.; African Americans--Social conditions.; Race discrimination.; Racism; United States--Race relations.

GPS: Abbeville, South Carolina
Map Coordinates: 34.178391, -82.380234
00:24:44 - On working for the Warden family in Hendersonville, North Carolina

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Partial Transcript: But I, uh--now I, I--after I moved to town--after I moved to Greenwood, rather, I was fortunate enough to go away one summer with J.B. Warden, clothing company. He had a, a summer home in Hendersonville, North Carolina.

Segment Synopsis: Childs talks about a summer he went away with the Warden family to work as a cook at their summer home in Hendersonville, North Carolina. He remembers fondly the Warden daughters driving him in their cars to view scenery, and a conversation with Mrs. Warden about whether to move north or stay with the Warden family as a permanent employee.

Keywords: Advice; Advice about moving north; Bungalows; Cars; Cooks; Hendersonville, North Carolina; J.B. Warden; Mrs. Warden; Riding; Sixteen-year-old girls; Summer homes; Summers

Subjects: African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Social conditions.; United States--Race relations.

GPS: Hendersonville, North Carolina
Map Coordinates: 35.322741, -82.446887
00:28:14 - Reflection on respect and brutality

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Partial Transcript: But I do realize this. You have to have respect for yourself to be respected. And, uh, with all that I've went through with, I don't have no malice in my heart against anyone.

Segment Synopsis: Childs reflects on how he views respect in terms of both personal worth and treatment of others. He explains how the laws of the South contributed to African-Americans' ignorance and presumed lack of respect by repressing Blacks and preventing them from obtaining a quality education.

Keywords: Alabama; Allen Ballard; Envious; Freedom; Georgia; Ignorance; Respect; School; Teachers; Three months

Subjects: African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Southern States.; Race discrimination.; Racism; United States--Race relations.

00:31:25 - On the Phoenix, South Carolina election riot of 1898

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Partial Transcript: And it wasn't--it was just like, uh--in, in brother--in Mr. Ballard's book I told him about the Phoenix riot. Well, I can tell you that too.

Segment Synopsis: Childs recalls the story his mother told him about the Phoenix Riot, when a carefully organized plan and good communication among Black families prevented local Whites from murdering the families of the 12 farmers who had demanded suffrage.

Keywords: Ballot boxes; Ballots; Barbed wire; Barrier breaking; Booth Ethridge; Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.; Elections; Farmers; Greenwood Court House; Henry Sacks; Horses; March Pass; Mothers; Pine Grove Methodist Church; Prayer; Sam Presley; Slavery; Tension; Tom Talbot; William Harris

Subjects: African American churches; African American families; African Americans--Civil rights; African Americans--Crimes against.; African Americans--Legal status, laws, etc.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Southern States.; Race discrimination.; Race riots; Racism; Suffrage.; United States--Race relations.; Voting.

GPS: Greenwood County Courthouse
Map Coordinates: 34.188163, -82.162311
00:38:18 - Story of a sharecropper’s wife who had a child with the White landowner

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Partial Transcript: Now when you were a young boy growing up then, you and, and the, you know, rest of your brothers and sisters, there must have been stories then that your father and your mother told you to sort of inform you about the world you were growing up in.

Segment Synopsis: Childs talks about a childhood memory of his mother's friend being bribed into a relationship and becoming pregnant. He also talks about his mother's anger but forgiveness towards her friend, and the fact that the baby was mixed race.

Keywords: Babies; Eavesdropping; Ella; Hunger; Landlords; Minervy Ellis; Mixed race; Mothers; Pregnancy; Revival month; Sawmills; Sharecroppers; Warnings

Subjects: African American families; African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Social conditions.; United States--Race relations.

00:42:28 - Earning a living at a young age in South Carolina

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Partial Transcript: And then, my mother told me, uh, let me see whether my daddy or my mother, my mother used to tell me practically all of the stories because my daddy, uh, he worked practically all the time, you know, in the field.

Segment Synopsis: Childs talks about how his mother made him and his siblings work the fields at a very young age. He speaks about the pay for his first day's work and learning responsibility, and recalls his later work at a sawmill and learning to cook.

Keywords: Biscuits; Boll weevil; Bread; Cooks; Fathers; Field work; Jake Stockman; Milk; Mothers; Mules; Pay; Plantations; Plowing; Responsibility; Sawmills; Sleepaway camps; Taggart; Work experiences

Subjects: African American families; African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Southern States.; Wages.

00:46:55 - Attitudes on race from the Black perspective

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Partial Transcript: You know, you mentioned the--your mother’s friend who, who, um, had the, the relationship with--

Segment Synopsis: When asked about divisions between the lighter skinned Black Philadelphians and the darker newcomers, Childs replies that while he never discriminated, some families and factions of people did look down upon people with darker skin.

Keywords: Color line; Community; Darker; Factions; Ignorance; Illegitimate; Lighter; Relationship

Subjects: African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Genealogy.; African Americans--Marriage.; African Americans--Race identity.; African Americans--Social conditions.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Race discrimination.; United States--Race relations.

00:50:32 - Reasons for going to the North and job opportunities available in Philadelphia

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Partial Transcript: Now 1914, the war breaks out in Europe, I guess.

Segment Synopsis: Childs describes how his older brother wrote to him about the job opportunities in Philadelphia. He also recalls how the boll weevil appeared out of nowhere and devastated the cotton economy of the region. He explains that the availability of jobs in northern cities was the primary reason for many southern Blacks' migration northward.

Keywords: Boll weevil; Brothers; Cotton; God; Jobs; Letters; Money; Trains

Subjects: African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia.; African Americans--Social conditions.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; World War, 1914-1918

00:54:26 - Employment at Midvale Steel Plant

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Partial Transcript: When I came here in 1917, and I too--uh, just to show you just how many people were working at Midvale Steel Plant, you could go there and check in and check out and they wouldn't miss you.

Segment Synopsis: Childs discusses his time working at the Midvale Steel Plant. He talks about the dangerous working conditions, the endless production cycles, the ability to skip work and not get caught, the lack of personal relationship with the boss, and the poor pay wages. He also talks about the power of the punch card in the factory, and how the punch card could be manipulated to prove or disprove whether work was accomplished and money was earned.

Keywords: Ants; Ballasts; Blue light; Bosses; Buddy; Check-in; Check-out; Dangerous; Deaths; Factories; Foremen; Guns; Hours; Killed; Laboring; Midvale Steel Works (Philadelphia, Pa.); Oil wells; Pay; Time cards; Working

Subjects: African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Social conditions.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Wages.

00:57:39 - On Philadelphia neighborhoods dangerous to Blacks

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Partial Transcript: Now, uh, had you heard any other sorts of stories before you--here's something.

Segment Synopsis: Childs briefly discusses how he learned to avoid certain sections of the city after one of his brothers was beaten, hospitalized, and then died from injuries sustained during a fight after crossing into a Polish neighborhood.

Keywords: Brothers; Dangers; Hospitals; Warnings about life in the North; Waylays

Subjects: African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Crimes against.; African Americans--Relations with Polish Americans; African Americans--Social conditions.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Race discrimination.; Racism; United States--Race relations.

00:58:52 - Reasons for coming to Philadelphia and settling down in the city

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Partial Transcript: Alright, what, what were your expectations before you came up? You were a boy right off the farm, right?

Segment Synopsis: Childs recalls the reasons for his first visit to Philadelphia, the reason for his moving here at his younger sister's request, his marriage, and a brief overview of his financial and home ownership status in his life. He talks about how he did not buy a home as he intended, but did provide financial support for many relatives and close friends.

Keywords: Apartments; Birth; Boll weevil; Expectations; Married; Sisters; Waiters

Subjects: African American families; African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Housing.; African Americans--Marriage.; African Americans--Social conditions.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.

01:02:26 - Career as a cook in Philadelphia

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Partial Transcript: What were your first impressions of Philadelphia?

Segment Synopsis: Childs talks about his culinary career in the city; he recalls going to school to learn how to cook, and getting hired as a janitor at a plant before working his way up to cafeteria cook. He then describes his work at a bakery in Bryn Mawr, and as a dishwasher at John Stout's restaurant, before he was hired at Carl Slingman's restaurant, where he worked until he retired.

Keywords: 44th Street (Philadelphia, Pa.); ACME; Bakery; Boarding houses; Bryn Mawr; Cafeterias; Carl Slingman; Chefs; Dillon Collins; Dishwashers; Janitors; John Stour; Ohio; Pride; Richmond Street (Philadelphia, Pa.); Schooling; Tioga Street (Philadelphia, Pa.); UGI; Waiters; Walnut Street (Philadelphia, Pa.)

Subjects: African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Social conditions.

GPS: The Restaurant School at Walnut Hill College
Map Coordinates: 39.955219, -75.207436
01:09:16 - Reflecting on moving north

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Partial Transcript: In retrospect, how do you feel about your, your move north?

Segment Synopsis: Childs reflects back on his decision to move to Philadelphia with slight regret. He believes that while it was a smart decision at the time, in the end the South ended up becoming better for Blacks than the North because the South accepted integration easier. According to Childs, the South is better than the North because the North is just as prejudiced, if not more so, than the South. He uses an example of a shopping trip to buy shoes in a department store to highlight the South's behavior under segregation compared to modern times, by explaining how under Jim Crow, Blacks would not even be allowed to try on shoes of their liking, while in modern times, they have the same consumer rights as Whites.

Keywords: Accommodating; Better; Closeness; Different; Foolish; Satisfied

Subjects: African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Southern States.; Integration; Race discrimination.; Racism

01:12:22 - Ignorance among new migrants

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Partial Transcript: Well now, I'm going to be frank with you and tell you the truth. Uh, it’s bad when you're not trained. See? And we had a lot of immigrants from the South didn’t know how to read or either write.

Segment Synopsis: Childs describes in vivid detail an incident where a fellow Southern Black caused a scene with a police officer in a bar because the Southerner wanted to take out his anger on the Northern cop for what Southern police officers had previously done to him. Childs decries this incident as an act of ignorance and goes on about how abusing privilege was a mistake many newcomers made too often.

Keywords: Bartenders; Culture; Ignorant; Immigrants; Mistreatment; Opportunity; Privilege; Saloons; Sympathetic; Vengeance

Subjects: African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Southern States.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Race discrimination.; Racism; United States--Race relations.

01:16:32 - Another example of the ignorance of some southern newcomers

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Partial Transcript: Can you give me some other examples of how they, uh, you know, uh, made things bad for themselves or how they--you know, how their ignorance showed in, in the city?

Segment Synopsis: Childs recalls more examples of how African American migrants who did not understand the Northern lifestyle caused scenes in both public and private. In one example, newcomers would start fights with the cashiers at grocery stores for not working quickly enough. In another example, a family Childs personally knew ended up killing themselves by making constant enemies around them.

Keywords: Ignorance; Isolated; Troubled

Subjects: African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Southern States.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; United States--Race relations.

01:19:05 - Issues within the Black community past and present

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Partial Transcript: Were, were they that sort of people in the South?

Segment Synopsis: Childs talks about how Blacks would sometimes lose control of themselves once they were free from the restraints of the South. He also talks about the abuse of self empowerment, as well as the destruction that alcohol and dope has wreaked upon the African American community. Childs also mentions the increased use of degrading language.

Keywords: Alcohol; Drug use; Freedom; Ignorance

Subjects: African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Social conditions.

01:22:23 - On the importance of character, self-respect, and personal discipline

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Partial Transcript: Alright. Uh, I had a friend that had a son. He give him everything that he wanted and I often--I used to caution him.

Segment Synopsis: Childs describes the importance of developing character within a young man, and uses a story about the son of one of his friends as an example. The son got into trouble with the law, and when the father asked Childs to stand as a character witness, Childs refused; stating that, "Your son don't have no character." He then describes how ruthless the court system is in determining judgement based on character.

Keywords: Character witnesses; Control; Courts; Jury

Subjects: African American families; African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Social conditions.

GPS: Philadelphia Juvenile/Family Court
Map Coordinates: 39.950991, -75.158610
01:25:05 - Difference between race relations in the North and South

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Partial Transcript: Now, when you came up there were great differences between Greenwood and Philadelphia.

Segment Synopsis: Childs remarks that there was little difference between Philadelphia and the South in terms of racial equality. Particularly, he only mentions the transportation being integrated, with restrooms and places to sit both mentioned as still being separate for Whites and Blacks.

Keywords: Differences; Fear; Liberation; Offered

Subjects: African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Southern States.; Integration; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Race discrimination.; Segregation in transportation; United States--Race relations.

01:26:04 - Black voting in Philadelphia in the 1920s

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Partial Transcript: Did you vote when you came up to Philadelphia?

Segment Synopsis: Childs talks about his first time voting; he describes it as a "beautiful experience." He also recalls several famous politicians of the era, including President Franklin Roosevelt, President Warren G. Harding, Mayor Hampy Moore, and Mayor W. Freeland Kendrick.

Keywords: Hampy Moore; Kendrick; Roosevelt; Votes; W. Freeland Kendrick (Mayor of Philadelphia, 1924-28); Warren G. Harding

Subjects: African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Politics and government.; African Americans--Social conditions.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Voting.

01:27:01 - Black politics of Philadelphia in the 1920's

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Partial Transcript: Republican, back when you first arrived?

Segment Synopsis: Childs discusses why he identified as independent and voted Democrat from the very beginning. He talks about his sister being forced into submission by Republican authorities, his unpopularity with the local Black political population, and the school debate that acted as the origin of his future political choices. Childs also fondly remembers President Roosevelt and praises him for the establishment of social security.

Keywords: Abraham Lincoln; Bribes; Democrats; George Washington; High school; Labor; Mothers assistance; Polls; Republicans; Sisters

Subjects: African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Politics and government.; African Americans--Social conditions.; Democratic Party (U.S.); Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Republican Party (U.S. : 1854- ); Roosevelt, Franklin D. (Franklin Delano), 1882-1945.; Voting.; Wages.

01:30:11 - Divisions of education between Old Philadelphians and newcomers

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Partial Transcript: Was there any, um--now when you came north there, uh, was there any division in Philadelphia between the Old Philadelphia Black families or Black people and the, the Southerners or did everybody get along?

Segment Synopsis: Childs briefly recounts that the only way to differentiate a northern Black person from a southern Black person was that the northerners were better educated. He goes on to complain about the poor standards of southern schools.

Keywords: Difference; Educated; Pay; Schools

Subjects: African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Southern States.; Discrimination in education.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Race discrimination.

01:32:22 - Black religion in Philadelphia in the 1920's

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Partial Transcript: How long after you came north before you, you, uh, joined a church--started going to church?

Segment Synopsis: Childs talks about how he joined a church that was directly associated with his church back home in Greenwood. He discusses how many newcomer Baptists in the city founded their own new churches instead of joining already existing establishments because they wanted to feel more at home instead of being treated as an outsider. Childs also goes on to talk about how the first services were located at a horse stable and how he is the last living member of the original Philadelphia branch that came from the Greenwood branch of the church.

Keywords: Baptists; Greenwood, South Carolina; Home; Horse stable; Members; Methodist; Morris Chapel; Mother Bethel; Prayer meetings; Reverend Gordon; Reverend I.W. Paris; Services; Welcoming

Subjects: African American churches; African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Southern States.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.

GPS: Morris Chapel Baptist Church
Map Coordinates: 39.993573, -75.150458
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01:35:50 - How churches aided newcomers

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Partial Transcript: Did the church do anything to, to help or advise the people just up from the South on how to behave or how to get jobs or find places to live?

Segment Synopsis: Childs recalls how his brother owned a large house where the Harrison School currently stands, and how he would rent it out to newcomers from the South to help them stabilize in Philadelphia. Childs recalls that the original inhabitants of the boarding house formed the Morris Chapel through their weekly prayer meetings, and that they rented the original horse barn where the services were held.

Keywords: 1261 N. 11th Street (Philadelphia, Pa.); Advice; Barns; Big house; Gilrey; Goodwin; Prayer meetings; Rented; Wells

Subjects: African American churches; African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Religion.; African Americans--Social conditions.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.

GPS: Harrison School
Map Coordinates: 39.971786, -75.153304