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00:00:20 - Family background and life in the South

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Partial Transcript: I guess I’d like to start with your family background.

Segment Synopsis: Martin, Jr. discusses his father's history in the South, which includes his early employment in education at the Joseph K. Bricks Industrial School. Martin, Jr. discusses why his father moved the family from the South, and where he eventually decided to settle in the North.

Keywords: "Half a Man" (book); American Missionary Association; Bricks School; Enfield; Joseph K. Brick Industrial School; Joseph K. Bricks; North Carolina; Philadelphia (Pa.)

Subjects: African American families; African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Southern States.; Childhood; Race discrimination.; Segregation.

00:03:11 - Father’s role as real estate agent and civil rights activist in Philadelphia

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Partial Transcript: He decided he wanted to go in business for himself, and, uh, he felt he wanted to go into the real estate business. One of the reasons being that it depended on personal services.

Segment Synopsis: Martin, Jr. discusses the establishment of Martin, Sr.’s real estate business at Six North 42nd Street in West Philadelphia. Martin explains his father’s fight for equal rights of African Americans in Philadelphia, where he claims African Americans took a passive stance against segregation and discrimination.

Keywords: "Negros"; Armstrong Association (Philadelphia affiliate of the National Urban League); Bearing Street; Mr. Charlie; N.A.A.C.P.; Native born Philadelphians; Pocono Mountains; Powell Avenue; Real estate; Real estate brokers; Ventnor, New Jersey; West Philadelphia (Pa.); White complex

Subjects: African American business enterprises--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia; African Americans--Civil rights; African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Societies, etc.; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; United States--Race relations.

GPS: Former site of Isadore Martin, Inc., Realtor
Map Coordinates: 39.957937, -75.206134
00:09:56 - Motivations for moving north to Philadelphia

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Partial Transcript: Before we, we go into the N.A.A.C.P., I meant to ask you something. Was there any incident that, uh, influenced your father’s decision to move the family North?

Segment Synopsis: Martin, Jr. explains his father’s primary reasons for relocating his family to the North from Enfield, North Carolina. Martin, Sr. sought to leave the segregation and discrimination of the Jim Crow South behind. Martin retells the story of the bank president Martin, Sr. worked with, who would not invite Mr. and Mrs. Martin to dinner, because, "well, you know how things are down here." Martin says these racially driven problems influenced Martin, Sr's decision to relocate the family to Philadelphia.

Keywords: African American Surnames; Banks; Bricks; Jim Crow Laws; Migration from the South; Motivations to move North; Movie theaters; North Carolina; Philadelphia (Pa.); Post masters; Public accommodations; Rail Cars; Social norms; The South

Subjects: African American families; African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Southern States.; Race discrimination.; Racism; United States--Race relations.

00:15:49 - Establishment of West Philadelphia as an African American neighborhood

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Partial Transcript: Now, one of the things I’m very interested in is, is how West Philadelphia opened up to, to Blacks during the nineteen teens and twenties.

Segment Synopsis: Martin, Jr. explains the appeal of West Philadelphia to African Americans living in South Philadelphia. Black families desired homes with a front porch and back yard; as Black families moved in, White families departed the neighborhood. Martin recalls where his father sold African Americans property in West Philadelphia, roughly from Thirty-Eighth Street, up to approximately Fiftieth Street.

Keywords: "Colored"; 40th and Market Street (Philadelphia, Pa.); Coachmen; Elevated; Filbert Street (Philadelphia, Pa.); Garden spot; Irish Americans--Philadelphia; Ludlow Street (Philadelphia, Pa.); Main Line (Philadelphia, Pa.); Migration; Mount Pisgah African Methodist Episcopal Church (Philadelphia, Pa.); Native Philadelphians; Porches; Powelton Avenue (Philadelphia, Pa.); Row-houses; Second mortgages; South Philadelphia, Pa.; West Philadelphia (Pa.); Yards

Subjects: African American families; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Housing.; African Americans--Social conditions.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; United States--Race relations.

GPS: West Philadelphia
Map Coordinates: 39.980672,-75.213461
00:20:58 - African American home ownership in Philadelphia

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Partial Transcript: Th--w--the people moving in then in the teens and twenties, was it primarily people of means buying houses or was there a lot of renting going on--

Segment Synopsis: Martin, Jr. explains the distinct differences between native Philadelphians, who rented their homes, and southern migrants, who preferred home ownership. Martin, Jr. discusses the logic behind rental properties and home ownership amongst the two groups of African Americans in Philadelphia. Native Philadelphians felt rental properties allowed them flexibility, but southern migrants preferred home ownership, which in their eyes allowed for socioeconomic gain.

Keywords: 69th Street; Automobiles; Home ownership; Migration; Movement; Nest egg; Rental housing; South Philadelphia, Pa.; Suburban living; The North; The South; West Philadelphia, Pa.

Subjects: African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Housing.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Southern States.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.

00:25:07 - African American savings and loan associations in Philadelphia

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Partial Transcript: And, and last time I was here you mentioned that you, um, have a good historical knowledge of, of the history of the black savings and loans in the city.

Segment Synopsis: Martin, Jr. discusses the establishment and function of African American building and loan associations in the city of Philadelphia. Martin stresses the importance of George W. Mitchell who established the majority of these institutions in Philadelphia. Martin, Jr. tells the story of how Mitchell opened the first women's building and loan association, a very unique venture for the period.

Keywords: "Negro" migration; 19th and Girard Ave (Philadelphia, Pa.); Berean Savings Association; Berean School; Brown and Stevens Bank (-1925); Building and Loan Association; Federally insured; George W. Mitchell (lawyer, realtor); Great Depression; Home ownership; Liquidated; Loans; Matthew Anderson; Minorities; Old Berean Church; Savings and loan; Southerners; Spread; Women's Building and Loan Association

Subjects: African American business enterprises--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia; African American leadership; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Social conditions.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.

GPS: Old Berean Church
Map Coordinates: 39.973486,-75.167238
00:30:14 - Discrimination in Philadelphia banking and housing

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Partial Transcript: Now, were there White banks in the city that would, um, fund mortgages for--

Segment Synopsis: Martin, Jr. remembers African Americans facing discrimination from White banks, and how African Americans dealt with the resulting inadequate housing in West, North, and South Philadelphia. Martin, Jr. explains his father’s attempts to improve African Americans’ poor living conditions in Philadelphia throughout the 1910s and 1920s.

Keywords: Armstrong Association; Bias; Center City; Delaware Housing Administration; Federal Housing Administration; Home ownership; Housing codes; Housing conditions; Improved housing; Living conditions; Loans; Mortgages; North Philadelphia, Pa.; Restrictive covenants; South Philadelphia, Pa.; Travelers Aid Society; West Philadelphia, Pa.

Subjects: African American leadership; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions.; Discrimination in housing.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Race discrimination.; United States--Race relations.

00:35:45 - Prominent Black Philadelphia realtors

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Partial Transcript: Who were the, uh, the most prominent of the Black realtors in the city during the nineteen-teens into the--

Segment Synopsis: Martin, Jr. describes numerous realtors who were close associates of Martin, Sr., including John W. Harris, Percy White, W. Basil Webb, Simon B. Thomas, and S. J. M. Brock. Martin, Jr. gives ample attention to Brock, the first prominent African American realtor in Philadelphia. He catered mostly to White clients, because very few native Black Philadelphians demonstrated interest in the purchase of homes. Martin discusses the establishment of Black neighborhoods in Philadelphia, including South Philadelphia, West Philadelphia, and parts of North Philadelphia.

Keywords: "Philadelphia Tribune"; Christopher Perry; Exploitation; Gene Kelly; Gentrification; John W. Harris (realtor); Percy White (realtor); Realtors; Red lining; S. J. M. Brock; S.J.M. Brock Building and Loan Association; Simon B. Thomas; W. Basil Webb

Subjects: African American business enterprises--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Housing.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.

00:41:08 - Impact of the Great Migration to Philadelphia

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Partial Transcript: Okay, um, let’s turn from real estate now to, uh, the Great Migration.

Segment Synopsis: Martin, Jr. discusses the expansion of the African American population in Philadelphia. Charles Hardy shares the story of an Arkansas man who visited a Philadelphia train station on the weekends, and watched southerners arrive in Philadelphia.

Keywords: Expansion; Great Migration; Movement; Philadelphia (Pa.); Sprawl; Train stations

Subjects: African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia.; African Americans--Social conditions.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.

00:43:12 - Description of southern migrants to Philadelphia

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Partial Transcript: So, uh, I guess the, the types of, of southerners coming up at that time, who moved in to West Philadelphia, wouldn’t have been the common laborers working on the railroads, or in the steel mills?

Segment Synopsis: Martin, Jr. describes the typical Black migrant to Philadelphia as working class, seeking an escape from the oppressive Jim Crow laws of the South, while bettering their socioeconomic status and finding better jobs. Martin, Jr. explains how southern African Americans bought homes more frequently in Philadelphia than native Black people who typically rented their houses from White property owners. This system of home ownership allowed White landowners to exploit African American renters with high rent, poor housing, and inadequate maintenance.

Keywords: Building and Loan Association; Great Depression; Home ownership; Improvement; Labor; Migrants; Savings; Savings accounts; Social class; St. Mark's Building and Loan Association

Subjects: African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Housing.; African Americans--Social conditions.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; United States--Race relations.

00:45:19 - Differences between southern and native Philadelphia African Americans

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Partial Transcript: How did they differ from native Philadelphians, in their attitudes or behaviors or?

Segment Synopsis: Martin, Jr. explains the differences between native born African Americans in Philadelphia and southern Blacks who migrated to Philadelphia throughout the Great Migration. Martin, Jr. asserts that the majority of southern African Americans strongly supported the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (N.A.A.C.P.), and worked hard to obtain jobs and property in the city. In contrast, the native Black Philadelphians grew complacent regarding racism and segregation.

Keywords: Differences; Hog Island; N.A.A.C.P.; Native Philadelphians; Southern N.A.A.C.P. supporters; Southern Philadelphians; Steel mills

Subjects: African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Housing.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions.; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Race discrimination.; Racism; United States--Race relations.

00:46:46 - Activities of the Philadelphia N.A.A.C.P.

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Partial Transcript: What activities then was the--by the nineteen--mid-1920s into the ‘30s, the Philadelphia N.A.A.C.P. has a sort of a bad rep as being, uh, somewhat of an elitist organization.

Segment Synopsis: Martin, Jr. adamantly states the Philadelphia branch of the N.A.A.C.P. did not have an elitist attitude, but did not outwardly protest segregation. Martin, Jr. describes the challenges the organization faced from its own members who claim integration of Philadelphia schools would cost their African American male and female teachers jobs. Charles Hardy asks about Cheyney University, which Martin, Jr. says he cannot discuss on the record.

Keywords: Booker T. Washington; Cheyney University; Dr. J. Max Barber (first president Philadelphia NAACP); Dr. T. Spotress Burwell; Elitist; Integrated schools; Isadore Martin; John B. Deaver; Justina Roy; Life members; N.A.A.C.P.; NAACP Philadelphia Branch; New York City, New York; Rank and file; Segregationists; W. E. B. Du Bois

Subjects: African American leadership; African Americans--Civil rights; African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Societies, etc.; Integration; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Segregation in education.

00:51:37 - The N.A.A.C.P. during the Great Migration, 1910s-1920s

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Partial Transcript: What were their, their primary activities during the nineteen-teens, and through the mid-twenties, let’s say, the period of the Great Migration?

Segment Synopsis: Martin, Jr. explains how the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People helped integrate schools in Philadelphia. Martin, Jr. tells the story of his first days in elementary school in the city, in which his father fought to have his children educated in an integrated school system. Martin, Sr. threatened the principal with action from the school board, if he did not allow young Martin, Jr. to attend a White school.

Keywords: Cato School; Dr. Eugene Hinson; Elementary schools; Great Migration; Hog Island; Opposition; Pennsylvania; School board; Schools; Smith School; Students; Teachers; Voluntary segregation

Subjects: African Americans--Education.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions.; Discrimination in education.; Integration; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Race discrimination.; Segregation in education.

00:54:19 - Feelings and thoughts about Philadelphia

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Partial Transcript: How did your--before we leave b--how did your father feel about Philadelphia, having come here?

Segment Synopsis: Martin, Jr. discusses Martin, Sr.’s thoughts about how the city of Philadelphia differs from life in the South. Martin, Jr. uses Mary White Ovington's book "Half a Man" to explain how the North was better than the South, but the United States of America still fell far behind other nations in terms of the integration of the African American and Caucasian races.

Keywords: "Half a Man" (book); Grey's Ferry Bridge; Irish Americans--Philadelphia; Mary White Ovington; N.A.A.C.P.; Opinions; Philadelphia (Pa.); Rights; South Street Bridge (Philadelphia, Pa.); The North; The South; Trolley cars; Violence

Subjects: African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions.; Integration; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Race discrimination.; United States--Race relations.

00:56:52 - Politics in Philadelphia

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Partial Transcript: Was your father politically active?

Segment Synopsis: According to Martin, Jr., Martin, Sr. was not active in politics in Philadelphia, but Martin, Jr. does recall that Forrester Washington asked his father to serve as magistrate, which he turned down. Martin, Jr. discusses the corrupt political system that existed in Philadelphia throughout the 1910s. Martin, Jr. cites the examples of corruption within the William S. Vare political machine and Amos Scott’s political campaigns. These political machines exploited African American voters.

Keywords: 30th Ward Club; Allegiance; Alliances; Amos Scott (first Black magistrate in Philadelphia, elected in 1921); Armstrong Association (Philadelphia affiliate of the National Urban League); Dirty politics; Ed Henry; Forrester B. Washington (director of Armstrong Association); Gifford Pinchot (Pennsylvania governor, 1923-27, 1931-35); Illegal; Magistrate; Patronage; Pinchot administration; Political machine; Progress; Pythians; Republicans; Unregulated; Vare Machine; Wards; William Scott Vare

Subjects: African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Politics and government.; African Americans--Social conditions.; Knights of Pythias; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Race discrimination.

01:04:13 - Struggle to pass the Pennsylvania Equal Rights Bill and the aftermath

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Partial Transcript: What can you tell me about that whole episode, the struggle to get the bill passed?

Segment Synopsis: Martin, Jr. discusses the passage of the Equal Rights Bill in Harrisburg, but claims despite the passage of the bill, segregation and discrimination persisted throughout Pennsylvania. Martin, Jr. cites examples of segregation he faced with his father, Martin, Sr., in Harrisburg at a real estate convention in the Penn Harris Hotel. Martin, Jr. also discusses discrimination in the Young Men's Christian Association (Y.M.C.A.) to further illustrate the issue of discrimination in Pennsylvania.

Keywords: 1935 Civil rights legislation; Accommodation; Christian; Christian Street (Philadelphia, Pa.); Christian Street YMCA; City conditions; Equal Rights Bill, 1935 (Pennsylvania); George Howard Earle, III (Governor of Pennsylvania, 1935-39); Governor George Howard Earle; Harrisburg (Pa.); Legislature; Lobbying; N.A.A.C.P.; Penn Harris Hotel; Pocono Manor; Rooming houses; Skytop

Subjects: African Americans--Civil rights; African Americans--Legal status, laws, etc.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions.; Civil rights--Law and legislation; Race discrimination.; United States--Race relations.

GPS: Christian Street Y.M.C.A. Philadelphia, PA
Map Coordinates: 39.940804,-75.172151
01:09:04 - Martin, Sr.'s Philadelphia business and civil rights associates

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Partial Transcript: It sounds like your father was more radical in his inte--in his belief in integration than most Black men in the city, most prominent--

Segment Synopsis: Martin, Jr. discusses a long list of his father's associates, including Dr. Eugene Hinson, William S. Hagens, Dr. J. Max Barber, Oscar DePriest, and Dr. T.S. Burwell. Martin, Jr. briefly describes their contributions to end segregation in Philadelphia, and tells stories about a few of the men and their encounters with segregation and discrimination. Such is the case with Julian St. George White, a college graduate, who replaced Martin, Sr. as Secretary of the N.A.A.C.P. White worked in the post office and never received a promotion, while an uneducated White man moved up the chain of command.

Keywords: "Philadelphia Tribune"; Associates; Bribes; Dr. J. Max Barber (first president Philadelphia NAACP); Dr. T. Spotress Burwell; Eugene Washington Rhodes (editor, The Philadelphia Tribune); Friends; G. Edward Dickerson; George W. Mitchell (lawyer, realtor); Herbert E. Millen; Housing discrimination; Isadore Maximilian Martin, Jr. (realtor, NAACP branch president); Isadore Maximilian Martin, Sr. (realtor, NAACP branch president); Job discrimination; John B. Turner; John C. G. Temple; Julian St. George White (secretary of the Philadelphia NAACP); LaFollette; N.A.A.C.P.; Nellie Bright; Opposition; Protests; Realtors; Sadie Layton; School discrimination; South Philadelphia, Pa.; Susan Masseaux; William C. Fortie; William S. Hagens

Subjects: African American leadership; African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Politics and government.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Social life and customs.; African Americans--Societies, etc.; Discrimination in education.; Discrimination in employment.; Discrimination in housing.; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Race discrimination.

01:17:49 - Fighting segregation in Philadelphia theatres and restaurants, 1930s

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Partial Transcript: Now when the Equal Rights Bill was passed in ’34 or ’35, uh, I know there was a good deal of testing of that legislation in the city: sit-ins by interracial groups, you know, through the Quaker--through the Friends.

Segment Synopsis: Martin, Jr. tells the story of his participation in the successful desegregation of the Stanley Theater. Martin, Jr. and a few friends obtained a warrant for the manager's arrest, and eventually sued the theater for discriminatory seating of African Americans. Martin, Jr. recollects his fight with a restaurant owner in Downingtown, Pennsylvania over the service of his basketball team. Martin, Jr. recounts the story of Mamie Davis, a Y.W.C.A. secretary who sued the Stouffers Restaurant. Stouffers often discriminated against African Americans; Davis won her case, which proved the Equal Rights Bill held merit against discriminatory practices in the United States.

Keywords: Austin Norris (lawyer, newspaper publisher); Bribes; Downingtown School; Downingtown, Pennsylvania; Equal Rights Bill, 1935 (Pennsylvania); George Evans; Jacob Billikopf (Federation of Jewish Charities); Magistrates; Mastbaum Theater; Paul Binford (Stanton Theater-integration test case-1930s); Pay offs; Quakers (Society of Friends); Raymond Pace Alexander; Restaurant Busting; Robert N. C. Nix, Sr.; Sit-Ins; Stanley Company of America; Stanley Warner; Stanley Warner Theater; Stanton Theater (Philadelphia, integration test case, 1930s); Stouffers Restaurant; Teachers; Warrant

Subjects: African Americans--Civil rights; African Americans--Politics and government.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions.; Civil rights demonstrations; Civil rights movements--United States; Civil rights--Law and legislation; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Race discrimination.; United States--Race relations.

GPS: Former Site of the Stanley Theater in Philadelphia
Map Coordinates: 39.953528,-75.171538
01:26:21 - Black businesses amongst old and new Philadelphians

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Partial Transcript: Um, I should probably let you go pretty soon, but, uh, let me ask you one more battery of questions, and that would be around, um, Black businesses--

Segment Synopsis: Martin, Jr. recounts why migrants from the South opened their own businesses while native Philadelphians worked industrial jobs. Martin, Jr. describes the monopoly of Cassel's Undertaking on the interment of Black bodies in the city, predominately because White undertakers would not bury African Americans. The conversation shifts, and Martin, Jr. discusses loan discrimination by White banks, which caused difficulties for African Americans in obtaining a business loan. Martin cites loan discrimination as a primary reason for a lack of Philadelphia African American owned businesses. Martin, Jr. discusses the African American banking industry in the city.

Keywords: African American businesses--Philadelphia, Pa.; Andrew F. Stevens, Jr. (elected to Pennsylvania State Senate, 1920); Bishop Richard R. Wright, Jr.; Bogle; Brown and Stevens Bank (-1925); Business loans; Cassel's Undertaking; Catering; Citizens and Southern Bank (Philadelphia, Pa.); E. C. Brown; Elevator operators; Grocery stores; Insurance; Monopoly; Native Philadelphians; New Philadelphians; Occupations; Old Philadelphians (O.P.s); Prestige; Rev. William H. Moses (Colored Protective Association); Stereotyping; Wanamakers; Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania; William Cassell (undertaker)

Subjects: African American business enterprises--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Race discrimination.; United States--Race relations.

01:37:24 - African American involvement in industry and unions in Philadelphia

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Partial Transcript: There seem to have been a couple of attempts in the late nineteen-teens to establish some factories, shirtwaist factory, was it Goodwill Shirtwaist Factory?

Segment Synopsis: Martin, Jr. claims very few Black people established industries in Philadelphia, because of loan discrimination within city banks. Charles Hardy explains a few industrial developments amongst African Americans. Martin, Jr. discusses union membership and African American artisans; he discusses Philadelphia tradesman and the segregation associated with union membership in Philadelphia.

Keywords: Brick masons; Businessman's Association; Carpenters; Carpenters Union; Durham School (Philadelphia, Pa.); Factory work; Goodwill Shirtwaist Factory; Joseph Trent (builder); Knights of Pythias (Philadelphia chapter); Philadelphia (Pa.); R. J. Collier (Knights of Pythias Philadelphia chapter); Shirtwaist factory; Skilled craftsmen; Steffens; Trade jobs; Unions; William A. Tooks

Subjects: African American business enterprises--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia; African Americans--Economic conditions.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Segregation; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Societies, etc.; Discrimination in employment.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Race discrimination.; United States--Race relations.

01:43:16 - African American entrepreneurship in Philadelphia

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Partial Transcript: So Philadelphia did not have an atmosphere, uh, that was conducive to Black entrepreneurship?

Segment Synopsis: Martin, Jr. claims very few Black entrepreneurs established themselves in Philadelphia because the Black population was dispersed among several African American neighborhoods in the city, including areas of West Philadelphia, North Philadelphia, and South Philadelphia. The lack of concentration of the Black population in one neighborhood made the establishment of Black businesses challenging.

Keywords: Chicago, Illinois; Concentration; Entrepreneurs; Entrepreneurship; Germantown (Philadelphia neighborhood); New York, New York; North Philadelphia, Pa.; South Philadelphia, Pa.; West Philadelphia, Pa.

Subjects: African American business enterprises--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia; African American neighborhoods; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Social conditions.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.

01:47:34 - Impact of Franklin D. Roosevelt's election and New Deal on African American life

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Partial Transcript: Did the Roosevelt Administration, and the, the, the advent of the New Deal in the thirties, change the, uh, the political atmosphere, the social atmosphere, in Philadelphia at all?

Segment Synopsis: Martin, Jr. explains how the Roosevelt administration affected Philadelphia Blacks very little, but claims a shift in political party allegiance did occur as African Americans began to switch from Republican to Democrat. Martin, Jr. recalls Dr. J. Max Barber as the first prominent African American to switch parties, with other prominent Blacks to follow.

Keywords: "Philadelphia Independent" (African American newspaper founded in 1931); Democratic Party; Dr. J. Max Barber (first president Philadelphia NAACP); Franklin Delano Roosevelt; New Deal; Philadelphia, Pa.; Political changes; Political parties; Rev. Marshall L. Shepard, Sr.; Roosevelt Administration

Subjects: African American leadership; African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Politics and government.; African Americans--Social conditions.; New Deal, 1933-1939.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Roosevelt, Franklin D. (Franklin Delano), 1882-1945.

01:49:38 - Dealings with the Housing Association of the Delaware Valley

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Partial Transcript: Let me see, uh, did your father have any association with the Housing Association? Any dealings with the Delaware Housing Association?

Segment Synopsis: Martin, Jr. discusses Martin, Sr.'s associates within the Housing Association of Delaware Valley, and its attempts at improvements of the city’s housing conditions. Charles Hardy asks about the success of the association’s efforts, and Martin, Jr. claims its success rate floundered because the association discriminated against African Americans. Martin, Jr. discusses his father's attempts at admittance to the Philadelphia Real Estate Board, which posed numerous difficulties because of rampant discrimination within the Real Estate Board.

Keywords: 1937; Delaware Housing Association; Dorothy Montgomery; Dr. Harry Barnes; Housing Association; Housing discrimination; Housing integration; Real Estate Board

Subjects: African Americans--Conduct of life.; African Americans--Employment.; African Americans--Housing.; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Societies, etc.; Discrimination in employment.; Discrimination in housing.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.; Race discrimination.; United States--Race relations.

01:51:44 - Involvement in the Hotel Dale project

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Partial Transcript: Now, last time I was here you mentioned, uh--we talked a bit about the Hotel Dale.

Segment Synopsis: Martin, Jr. discusses the establishment of the Hotel Dale. The hotel promoters, which included his father, aimed to create a first class African American hotel on the corner of Broad Street and Catherine Street in South Philadelphia. Martin, Sr. did not promote the hotel for a long period. According to Martin, Jr., the Hotel Dale closed because of a few dishonest promoters who squeezed out the honest people.

Keywords: Broad and Catharine (Philadelphia, Pa.); Hotel Dale; Manipulation; Philadelphia hotels; President of Liberia; South Philadelphia, Pa.; Theft

Subjects: African American business enterprises--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia; African Americans--Social conditions.; African Americans--Societies, etc.; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Social conditions.