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00:00:00 - Father's death and burial

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Partial Transcript: --emotional than I knew him as a child. He was this athletic. He was 47 years old at the time of his death.

Segment Synopsis: Livia Bitton Jackson shares her memories and experiences of growing up Jewish during the Holocaust. She describes learning of her father's death and how men in the camp with her father were able to provide him with a Jewish burial. She shares her memories she has of him from her childhood.

Keywords: Allies; British; Childhood memories; Concentration camps; Death; Family; Fathers; Jewish burial; Marches; Nazis; Parents

Subjects: Jewish families; World War, 1939-1945--Personal narratives

00:04:07 - German invasion of Czechoslovakia

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Partial Transcript: Your family was from Hungary?

Segment Synopsis: Jackson describes where she grew up in Czechoslovakia. She explains the way Czechoslovakia was broken up after the Munich Pact in 1938. She discusses why the Jewish community of her town wasn't deported until later in the war, and the involvement of the Hungarian military police.

Keywords: 'Special trains'; Auschwitz; Deportations; German occupation; Ghettos; Hitler; Hungarian authorities; Hungary; Military police; Munich Pact; Yellow stars

Subjects: Czechoslovakia; Jewish families; World War, 1939-1945--Personal narrative

GPS: Czech Republic
Map Coordinates: 49.75, 15.5
00:09:03 - Description of temporary ghettos

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Partial Transcript: It was practically a synagogue compound. Which in, um, Eastern Europe and Central Europe as well.

Segment Synopsis: Jackson describes temporary ghettos set up to house Jewish citizens being deported from Eastern Czechoslovakia. She explains the layout of synagogue compounds that were used as the temporary ghettos. She discusses an instance where a friend was able to get food to her and her family while they were inside a ghetto.

Keywords: Compounds; Deportation; Food shortages; Friends; Ghettos; Hebrew schools; Jewish schools; Labor camps; Overcoming; Police; Synagogues

Subjects: Jewish families; Jewish ghettos; World War, 1939-1945--Personal narratives

00:14:07 - Personal anecdotes about deportation

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Partial Transcript: Do you remember your feelings?

Segment Synopsis: Jackson recalls specific memories about her time in temporary Jewish ghettos set up to hold Jewish families as they were being deported to Auschwitz. She describes her feelings during deportation and her distrust of the authorities organizing it. She discusses her poetry, how personal documents were destroyed, and seeing her teacher on the trains.

Keywords: Capital punishment; Deaths; Documents; Emotions; Fear; Hungarian Jews; Loss of possessions; Mental breaks; Physical illness; Poetry; Polish Jews; Resettlement; Shootings; Writing

Subjects: Jewish families; Jewish ghettos; World War, 1939-1945--Personal narratives

00:26:07 - Arrival at Auschwitz

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Partial Transcript: Most people who were in that train didn't --my friends were taken to the gas chambers.

Segment Synopsis: Jackson shares about her first moments at Auschwitz. She explains the selection process being performed by Dr. Josef Menegle. She recalls being directed from a group that was sent directly to gas chambers because of her appearance. She highlights the entrance process of Auschwitz including showers and head shavings.

Keywords: Aryan race; Blonde hair; Children; Family; Gas chambers; Marches; Memories; Prisoners; SS officers; Selections; Trauma

Subjects: Auschwitz (Concentration camp); Mengele, Josef, 1911-1979; World War, 1939-1945--Personal narratives

GPS: Auschwitz Concentration Camp (Oświęcim (Poland))
Map Coordinates: 50.035833, 19.178333
00:35:10 - Differences between Auschwitz and Plaszow / seeing Schindler's people on a train

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Partial Transcript: We were in Auschwitz for, at that time, for about a month not longer. And there we met another sister of my mother, younger sister, we met her.

Segment Synopsis: Jackson describes differences she noticed between the concentration camps of Auschwitz and Plaszow. She explains the beatings and shootings that occurred at Plaszow which were occurring frequently in the camp. She discusses being loaded into a train to return to Auschwitz and seeing a group of women who were on Schindler's list. She didn't realize this until decades later.

Keywords: 'Schindler's women'; Anger; Beatings; Gas chamber; Mother; Prisoners; Russian front; Schindler's List; Shootings; Starvation; Water

Subjects: Auschwitz (Concentration camp); Płaszów (Concentration camp); World War, 1939-1945--Personal narratives

GPS: Płaszów Concentration Camp (Kraków (Poland))
Map Coordinates: 50.030833, 19.9675
00:42:52 - Witnessing cruelty at Plazsow

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Partial Transcript: I was asked to give a talk at the Riverdale Y, um, about Schindler's List. There was an enormous audience.

Segment Synopsis: Jackson shares about an instance when the foreman of her labor group was attacked by his superiors for allowing them to get out of the rain for a few minutes. She explains that the man who ordered the attack on their foreman was Amon Goth, Plaszow's camp commander.

Keywords: Assaults; Barracks; Cruelty; Foreman; Labor; Nazi High Command; SS soldiers; Schindler's List; Supervisors

Subjects: Płaszów (Concentration camp); World War, 1939-1945--Personal narratives

GPS: Płaszów Concentration Camp (Kraków (Poland))
Map Coordinates: 50.030833, 19.9675
00:46:55 - A story of Poland's invasion / atrocities committed by people outside of the Nazi party

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Partial Transcript: And,uh, oh for instance a block elder, a young woman, the head of our block, was very very cruel to us. She was a Polish woman, young Jewish.

Segment Synopsis: Jackson's block elder told her about what happened to her family during Germany's invasion of Poland. She discusses how many atrocities were committed by individuals outside of the Nazi party.

Keywords: Attacks; Barracks; Block elders; Children; Hate groups; Murder; Nazis; Poland; Prisoners; Punishments; Selection; Terror

Subjects: Jewish families; World War, 1939-1945--Atrocities--Poland

GPS: Kraków (Poland)
Map Coordinates: 50.061389, 19.938333
00:53:00 - [DAMAGED AUDIO]

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Partial Transcript:

Segment Synopsis: The audio in this section was recorded on a tape that had been damaged. The setting on the recorder for this interview led to skipping sections that cuts out important parts of audio. Attempts have been made to salvage the audio in this section, but it remains warped and unintelligible.

01:15:28 - Punishments at Auschwitz

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Partial Transcript: I was punished and I had to kneel for 24 hours near the German command barrack.

Segment Synopsis: Jackson discusses an accident that occurred during her time at Auschwitz. She explains injuries she and her mother sustained from the accident. She was caught while sneaking into the hospital barrack in order to visit her mother. She recounts her punishment and the people she saw during it.

Keywords: Accidents; Barracks; Crematorium; Families; Gas chambers; German soldiers; Hospitals; Illness; Marches; Mother; Punishment; SS guards; Łódź ghetto

Subjects: Auschwitz (Concentration camp); World War, 1939-1945--Personal narratives

GPS: Auschwitz concentration Camp (Oświęcim (Poland))
Map Coordinates: 50.035833, 19.178333
01:27:15 - Łódź Ghetto / emotional abuse by other prisoners

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Partial Transcript: I'm describing how I know that these people, being that they were together, or family, meant that they had not undergone selection, it meant they were taken directly to the gas chamber.

Segment Synopsis: Jackson shares information about Lodz Ghetto she learned after World War II. She explains that many people brought in from Lodz were immediately sent to the gas chambers. She discusses the emotional torture she faced from other inmates who mocked her about the death of elderly individuals and children.

Keywords: Allies; Crematorium; Deaths; Denial; Emotional abuse; Factories; Fronts; Gas chambers; German Army; German occupation; German solders; Grief; Liquidation; Mordechai Chaim Rumkowsai; Nazi leadership; Polish Jews; Selection; Transports; Łódź Ghetto

Subjects: Auschwitz (Concentration camp); Jewish ghettos; World War, 1939-1945

GPS: Łódź Ghetto (Łódź (Poland))
Map Coordinates: 51.793056, 19.463889
01:31:16 - Teaching about the Holocaust

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Partial Transcript: By coincidence when I got this, uh, video, actually a week ago Tuesday, um, from my friend Susan who teaches history.

Segment Synopsis: Jackson discusses teaching about the Holocaust and Lodz Ghetto. She highlights the information she taught, and talks about inviting other survivors to discuss their experiences in her class.

Keywords: Auschwitz; Classes; Dominican Republic; Education; Gas chambers; Sousou; Students; Survivors; Teaching; Transport; the Reich; Łódź ghetto

Subjects: Holocaust survivors; World War, 1939-1945--Personal narratives

01:40:13 - Visiting an old friend

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Partial Transcript: She was pregnant as well. And suddenly sh--uh, as we are marching she remembered that she forgot the diapers in the, in the wagon.

Segment Synopsis: Jackson recalls seeing an old friend at his grandchild's wedding. She remembers her memories about him and his late wife. She explains that he was the one who told her of her father's death. The interview is concluded.

Keywords: Childhood; Family; Father; Friends; Jewish burial; Jewish law; Loss; Marriage; Memories; Survivors; Weddings

Subjects: Holocaust survivors; World War, 1939-1945--Personal narratives