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00:00:01 - Background

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Partial Transcript: Um, maybe if we could start.

Segment Synopsis: Thomas Boddie discusses his childhood in Cleveland (Ohio), when he first became interested in electronics and radio. He then talks about his time in the U.S. Army during World War II and talks about visiting the site of the Hiroshima bombing. Boddie then discusses designing pilot training devices at Wright Patterson Airforce Base.

Keywords: Acoustics; Amplifiers; Atomic bomb; Basic training; Blue Box; Boddie, Thomas; Boddie, Tom; Bradley, Ray; Camp Van Dorn (Miss.); Carpentry; Cedar Gardens; Cedar Road; Central High School; Civil Service; Cleveland (Ohio); Coils; Components; Crystal radio; Crystal sets; Dayton (Ohio); Diaphragms; Draft; Earphones; Electric; Electronics; Fairmont Junior High School; Families; Fort Huachuca (Ariz.); Goldberg, Rube; Grandparents; Guitar strings; Guitars; Guitars, electric; Guitars, hollow-body; Headphones; High schools; Hiroshima (Japan); Hiroshima bombing; Hollow-body guitar; Industrial Electricity; Japan; Junior high schools; Link trainers; Magnets; Mays, Danny; Mechanical; Microphone; Middle schools; Olson Electronics; Paul, Carl; Philco; Pilot Trainers; Popular Mechanics; Progress Radio; Quebec Road; Radiation; Radio; Radios, crystal; Saxophones; Second World War; Signal Corps; Sound; Sound systems; Special Service; Springfield (Mo.); Strings; Strings, guitar; Texas; Transformers; Tubes; Uhre, Carl; World War 2; World War II; World War Two; Wright-Patterson Airforce Base

Subjects: African American; African American--History.; Atomic bomb--United States--History.; Atomic bomb.; Audio equipment industry; Basic training (Military education); Camp Van Dorn (Miss.); Carpentry.; Civil service.; Cleveland (Ohio); Cleveland (Ohio)--History.; Dayton (Ohio); Family.; Fort Huachuca (Ariz.); Goldberg, Rube, 1883-1970.; Grandparents.; Guitar.; Headphones; Hiroshima Bay (Japan); History of science and technology; Japan.; Microphone.; Music; Radiation.; Radio.; Record labels.; Saxophone.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Springfield (Mo.); Texas.; World War, 1939-1945; Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio)

GPS: Cleveland (Ohio)
Map Coordinates: 41.4993, -81.6944
00:22:19 - Return home from war

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Partial Transcript: Anyway, uh, I finally got enough points to go home and I came back.

Segment Synopsis: Thomas Boddie discusses the difficulties he faced finding a job when he returned home from World War II.

Keywords: African Americans; Black; Boddie, Thomas; Boddie, Tom; Brothers; Cole Furniture Store; Cole, Joel; Cole, Lou; Discrimination; East Texas; Electrician; Navy; Oppression; Pierpoint Road; Racism; Radio; Second World War; Television; Texas; World War II; World War Two; Wright Patterson Air Force Base

Subjects: African American; African American--History.; Cleveland (Ohio)--History.; Discrimination.; History of science and technology; Music; Oppression.; Record labels.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Texas.; World War, 1939-1945; Wright-Patterson Air Force Base

GPS: Cleveland (Ohio)
Map Coordinates: 41.4993, -81.6944
00:25:54 - First recording studio

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Partial Transcript: How did you get into the recording aspect of it?

Segment Synopsis: Thomas Boddie discusses his first recording studio, put together with machines purchased at a local pawn shop. He also talks about the types of recorders that were available at the recording studio, as well as the microphones.

Keywords: 2 track; 2-track; Ampex; Ampex Electric Corporation; Audio Engineering Society (AES); Bars; Basements; Boddie, Thomas; Boddie, Tom; Channel 8; Channel eight; Cleveland (Ohio); Cleveland Recording; Consoles (broadcasting); Consoles (mixing); Consoles (recording); Control room; Discs, paper; Doan Loan; Fairchild; Fairchild disc cutter; Fairchild lathe; Full track; Hamann, Kenneth; Jewish Singing Society; Ken Hamann; Levy, Al; Louis, Joe; Machines; Magnecord; Magnecord PT6; Mentors; Microphones; Microphones (models): RCA 44-BX bidirectional; Microphones (models): RCA 44BX bidirectional; Microphones, Shire; Monaural; Mono; Muzak; Oscilloscopes; Paper discs; Pawn shops; Peerce, Jan; Pianos, grand; Presto; Presto disc cutter; Presto lathe; Radio; Radio transcription; Recorders, tape; Recorders, tape (models): Ampex 2-channel recorder; Recorders, tape (models): Ampex 300 monophonic; Recorders, tape (models): Ampex 350 full-track model; Recorders, tape (models): Magnecord PT6; Recorders, wire; Recording lathes, Fairchild; Recording lathes, Presto; Recording studios; Records, kinds of: glass; Records, kinds of: lacquer; Records, kinds of: long-playing (LP); Rek-O-Cut; Repair; Scene Magazine; Schneider Recording; Schneider, Hank; Stereo; Stereophonic; Studios; Tape recorder; Tijuana Bar; Transcription; Transcription, radio; Two track; Two-track; Volume expander; WXEL (Radio stations); Wilcox-Gay; Wilcox-Gay disc recorder; Wire recorder

Subjects: African American; African American--History.; Ampex corporation; Audio Engineering Society; Cleveland (Ohio); Cleveland (Ohio)--History.; History of science and technology; Lathes; Louis, Joe, 1914-1981.; Microphone; Music; Muzak; Oscilloscopes.; Pawnbrokers; Peerce, Jan, 1904-1984; Piano.; RCA Corporation; RCA Corporation. Consumer Electronics; Radio.; Record labels.; Schneider, Hank.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Stereophonic sound systems.

GPS: Cleveland (Ohio)
Map Coordinates: 41.4993, -81.6944
00:43:43 - Work with musical artists

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Partial Transcript: This machine here, this, uh, two track Ampex, uh, I know you've heard of the O'Jays--

Segment Synopsis: Thomas Boddie discusses the various musical artists with whom he worked, such as the O'Jays and A.C. Jones and the Soulettes. He then talks about working at the Cathedral of Tomorrow recording services on location.

Keywords: A.C. Jones & The Soulettes (Artist); Advertising; Agency Records; Akron (Ohio); Angley, Ernest; Audio Recording; Boddie, Thomas; Boddie, Tom; Carnegie Street; Cathedral of Tomorrow; Chester Street; Cleveland (Ohio); Cleveland Indians (Baseball team); Cleveland Recording; Cuyahoga Falls (Ohio); Daughters; Disc jockeys; Hole in Your Soul, the (Album); Jones, A.C. (Artist); Leo's Casino; Leo’s Casino; Liberty Records; Live at Leo’s Casino (Album); Malakar, Vlad; Musso, Joe; Names; O'Jays, the (Artist); Otto’s Grotto; Republic Hall; Rosenberg, Arnie; Schneider Recording; Stand in for Love (Song); Summit Choral Society; Teenage Fair; WGNO (Radio station); Waite, Don; Who, the (Artist)

Subjects: African American; African American--History.; Akron (Ohio); Angley, Ernest, 1922-; Cleveland (Ohio); Cleveland (Ohio)--History.; Cleveland Indians (Baseball team); Cuyahoga Falls (Ohio); Disc jockeys.; Family.; History of science and technology; Liberty Records; Music; Record labels.; Rosenberg, Arnold Julius, 1933-; Rosenberg, Arnold L., 1941-; Rosenberg, Arnold S.; Rosenberg, Arnold, 1931-; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Summit Choral Society; Who (Musical group)

GPS: Cleveland (Ohio)
Map Coordinates: 41.4993, -81.6944
00:54:32 - Evolution of technology

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Partial Transcript: Uh, we had a three track Ampex then, that we had bought.

Segment Synopsis: Thomas Boddie discusses the evolution of recording technology during his time as a recording engineer, from simple Ampex two-channel recorders to 8-track recorders. He also talks about recording funerals on location.

Keywords: 8 track; 8-track; Ampex; Ampex Corporation; Ampex Electric Corporation; Audio Recording; Automation; Berkowitz Funeral Home; Boddie, Thomas; Boddie, Tom; Channels; Cleveland (Ohio); Consoles (mixing); Consoles, mixing (models): Teac 5; Dairy; Duplicators, cassette; Eight track; Eight-track; Family feuds; Funeral homes; Funerals; Garfield Heights (Ohio); Gospel music; Hyde Piano Company; Integrated signals; Kelmar Record Pressing; Limiters; Machines; Machines, tape; Modification; Mother; Multi-tracking; Organs; Play It Again Sam; Presses, record; Pressing plants; Record pressing plants; Recorders, cassette; Recorders, cassette, Sony; Recorders, kinds of: Ampex 8-track; Recorders, tape; Recorders, tape (models): Ampex 3-track; Recorders, tape (models): Ampex 3-track recorders; Recorders, tape (models): Ampex 300 monophonic; Recording lathes; Recording studios; Recording, multi-track; Recording, on location; Recording, remote; Rhythm section; Rosenberg, Arnie; Signals, integrated; Sony; Sony Cassette Recorder; St. Claire; Stock; Stokes, Carl; Studios; Switching arrangements; Tape machine; Teac; Teac 5; Technology; Teenage Fair; Transistors; Trejeal; Trejeul; Tubes

Subjects: African American; African American--History.; Ampex corporation; Audio equipment industry; Cleveland (Ohio); Cleveland (Ohio)--History.; History of science and technology; Music; Organ.; Record labels.; Rosenberg, Arnold Julius, 1933-; Rosenberg, Arnold L., 1941-; Rosenberg, Arnold S.; Rosenberg, Arnold, 1931-; Sony Corporation of America; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History

GPS: Cleveland (Ohio)
Map Coordinates: 41.4993, -81.6944
01:14:52 - Clientele / electric organs

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Partial Transcript: So, um, yeah, I guess, uh, maybe this is a good time to, to, ask you about what you recall of your clientele over the years.

Segment Synopsis: Thomas Boddie discusses the clientele that utilized Boddie Recording, such as churches and synagogues who wished to have their services recorded. He also talks about his career as an electric organ repair person.

Keywords: 8 track; 8-track; American Guild of Organists (AGO); Baldwin organs; Berkowitz Funeral Home; Bluegrass music; Boddie, Thomas; Boddie, Tom; Chimes; Christian Scientists; Cleveland (Ohio); Cleveland Historical Society; Clients; Country and Western music; Country music; Eight track; Eight-track; Electric organs; Flutes; Funeral homes; Funerals; Generators, tone; Hammond chord organs; Hammond organs; Harry and the Apes (Artist); Hyde Piano Company; Instruments; Kann organs; Money; Mothers; Octaves; Organs; Organs, Baldwin; Record cutting; Recorders, tape (models): Ampex 8-track; Recording; Recording lathes; Recording, on location; Recording, remote; Reids; Solo box; Stokes, Carl; Tone generators; Tone wheels; Turfits, the (Artist)

Subjects: African American; African American--History.; American Guild of Organists; Audio equipment industry; Baldwin organ; Bluegrass music.; Christian Science.; Cleveland (Ohio)--History.; Cleveland (Ohio.); Country music.; Electronic organ; Flute.; Hammond organ; History of science and technology; Music; Record labels.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History

GPS: Cleveland (Ohio)
Map Coordinates: 41.4993, -81.6944
01:23:08 - Cincinnati riots of 1968 / academics

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Partial Transcript: And was this from, from the beginning, or did you see--

Segment Synopsis: Thomas and Louise Boddie discuss the deleterious effect that the Cincinnati Riots of 1968 had on their business, driving many white customers away. Thomas Boddie then discusses his struggles in academia, particularly with mathematics.

Keywords: Boddie Recording; Boddie, Thomas; Boddie, Tom; Business; Cassettes; Cincinnati (Ohio); Cincinnati Riots; Computers; Duplicating; Duplicators, cassette; Failed; Fairmont; Flunking; InFonics; Indiana; Mathematics; Monaural; Mono; Motown Records; On site recording; Play It Again Sam; Pressing plants; Recording, high-speed; Recording, on location; Recording, on site; Recording, remote; Riots, Cincinnati; Seventh grade; Shop classes; Slide rules; Speed; Stereo; Stereophonic; Strokes; Tri-City College

Subjects: African American; African American--History.; Audio equipment industry; Cincinnati (Ohio); Cleveland (Ohio)--History.; Computers; History of science and technology; Indiana.; Mathematics.; Motown Record Corporation.; Music; Record labels.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Stereophonic sound systems.

GPS: Cincinnati (Ohio)
Map Coordinates: 39.1, -84.516667
01:34:32 - Boddie Recording

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Partial Transcript: By then we had, we had, we had set up our record company then.

Segment Synopsis: Thomas Boddie discusses his record label, Boddie Recording, which specialized in recording demo records and on location recording to church services and synagogues.

Keywords: Acetate; American Federation of Musicians (AMF); Bar Mitzvahs; Blanks; Boddie Recording; Boddie, Thomas; Boddie, Tom; Business; Cleveland (Ohio); Demonstration; Demos; Fees; Grand Frank Railroad (Artist); Incorporation; Judaism; Knight, Terry; Lacquer; Lathes, mastering; Licenses; Microgroove; Microphones; Motown Records; Organs; Park Synagogue; Publishing companies; Rabbi Green; Rabbi Silver; Radio stations; Record companies; Record labels; Record plants; Recorders, tape; Recording lathes; Recording studios; Records, kinds of: acetate; Records, kinds of: blanks; Records, kinds of: demo; Records, kinds of: demonstration; Records, kinds of: lacquer; Records, kinds of: long-playing (LP) microgroove; Schneider, Hank; Studio; Studios; Synagogues; Tape recorder; Television; Temple Immanuel; Temples; Towers; Transcription; Transcription, radio; Transmitters; Unions; WBOE (Radio station)

Subjects: African American; African American--History.; American Federation of Musicians.; Audio equipment industry; Bar mitzvah.; Cleveland (Ohio); Cleveland (Ohio)--History.; Grand Funk Railroad (Musical group); History of science and technology; Judaism.; Knight, Terry; Microphone; Motown Record Corporation.; Music; Organ.; Record labels.; Schneider, Hank.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History

GPS: Cleveland (Ohio)
Map Coordinates: 41.4993, -81.6944
01:45:44 - Limiters

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Partial Transcript: Ken is a brain.

Segment Synopsis: Thomas Boddie expounds on the use of limiters in recording in this highly technical discussion.

Keywords: Amplifiers; Audio Recording; Boddie, Thomas; Boddie, Tom; Compression; Consoles (recording); Controlled limiting; Cutter; Cutting machine; Distortion; Flickinger, Dan; Gigax, Bruce; Hamann, Kenneth; Hamann, Kenneth Richard; Level; Limiters; Limiters, Presto; Limiting, controlled; Microphones; Musician; Presto; Record cutter; Record lathe; Recording lathes; Schneider, Hank; Signal Corps; Signals; Soviet Union; Transmitters; Transmitters, radio; Volume; Waite, Don

Subjects: African American; African American--History.; Audio equipment industry; Cleveland (Ohio)--History.; History of science and technology; Lathes.; Microphone; Music; Record labels.; Schneider, Hank.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Soviet Union.

GPS: Cleveland (Ohio)
Map Coordinates: 41.4993, -81.6944
01:54:56 - Remote recording

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Partial Transcript: Well, Louise, let's talk to you for awhile here.

Segment Synopsis: Louise Boddie discusses the business from her perspective, including the challenges of owning a business as an African American in the 1950s and 1960s. She also talks about recording various church groups on location.

Keywords: 2 track; 2-track; African American; African Methodist Episcopal Church; African-Americans; Baptist; Boddie, Louise; Boddie, Thomas; Boddie, Tom; Brothers; Business; Business League; Business-owners, African-American; California; Cassettes; Children; Church of Christ; Church of the Living God; Church services; Churches; Cincinnati (Ohio); Cleveland (Ohio); Cleveland Business League; Conventions; Families; Florida; General conferences; Hawkins, Bill; Kansas City (Mo.); Location recording; Machinery; Marriages; Memphis (Tenn.); Mixer; Mixing; New Orleans (La.); On site recording; Pianos; Record pressing; Recorders, tape (models): Ampex 2-channel recorder; Recorders, tape (models): Ampex 200; Recording, on location; Recording, on site; Recording, reel to reel; Recording, remote; Relationships; Remote recording; Stereo; Stereophonic; Travel; Two track; Two-track

Subjects: African American; African American businesspeople.; African American--History.; African Methodist Episcopal Church.; California.; Children.; Church.; Cincinnati (Ohio); Cleveland (Ohio); Cleveland (Ohio)--History.; Family.; Florida; Hawkins, Bill; History of science and technology; Kansas City (Mo.); Memphis (Tenn.); Music; New Orleans (La.); Piano.; Record labels.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Stereophonic sound systems.

GPS: Cleveland (Ohio)
Map Coordinates: 41.4993, -81.6944
02:15:33 - Future of Boddie Recording

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Partial Transcript: We have a, a store room.

Segment Synopsis: Thomas Boddie discusses the future of Boddie Recording and the fact that none of their children want to take over the recording business when they retire.

Keywords: Akron (Ohio); Boddie Recording; Boddie, Louise; Boddie, Thomas; Boddie, Tom; Children; Cleveland (Ohio); Co-Eds, the (Artist); Families; Funeral homes; Insurance; Leisure time; Money; Orchestras; Parents

Subjects: African American; African American--History.; Akron (Ohio).; Children.; Cleveland (Ohio); Cleveland (Ohio)--History.; Family.; History of science and technology; Money.; Music; Orchestra.; Parents.; Record labels.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History

GPS: Cleveland (Ohio)
Map Coordinates: 41.4993, -81.6944
02:21:52 - Financing

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Partial Transcript: Well, anyway, God, I've lost track.

Segment Synopsis: Thomas and Louise Boddie discuss the difficulty they faced obtaining financing for their record label. Louise Boddie then talks about the company's harassment at the hands of the Internal Revenue Service.

Keywords: African Americans; Auditing; Audits; Bisconti, Dom; Boddie Recording; Boddie, Louise; Boddie, Thomas; Boddie, Tom; Central National Bank; Conspiracies; Credit; Discrimination; Garfield Heights (Ohio); Grinders; Hamann, Ken; Hamann, Kenneth; Hamann, Kenneth Richard; Harassment; Hawkins, Bill; Internal Revenue Service (IRS); Loan officers; Loans; Mafias; Music industry; Oil embargo; Oil shortage; Oppression; Plastic; Playhouse Square; Pressing plants; Race; Racism; Recording; Recording business; Recording industry; Records, kinds of: vinyl; Vinyl; Waite, Don; Wolf, Fred

Subjects: African American; African American--History.; Auditing.; Central National Bank of Cleveland; Cleveland (Ohio)--History.; Credit.; Discrimination.; Hawkins, Bill.; History of science and technology; Mafia.; Music; Oppression.; Plastic.; Race.; Record labels.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Vinyl acetate; Wolf, Fred.

GPS: Cleveland (Ohio)
Map Coordinates: 41.4993, -81.6944
02:44:14 - Future of record industry

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Partial Transcript: Did you ever go to Motown? Did you ever meet anyone up there?

Segment Synopsis: Thomas and Louise Boddie discuss the future of the recording industry. They then discuss the progress of race relations in the United States.

Keywords: African Americans; African Methodist Episcopal Church; Analog; Audio Recording; Banks; Boddie Recording; Boddie, Louise; Boddie, Thomas; Boddie, Tom; Boilers; Cassettes; Church of God and Christ; Cleveland Indians (Baseball team); Cleveland Recording; Clients; Cultures; Detroit (Mich.); Digital; Duplicators; Duplicators, cassette; Equipment; Loan officers; Loans; Motown Records; Perkowski, Chuck; Pressing plants; Products; Record pressing; Recorders, cassette; Recorders, tape; Recording business; Recording studios; Recording tape, high bias; Recording tape, regular bias; Recording, analog; Recording, digital; Recording, tape; Schneider, Hank; Schneider, Kay; Steam boilers; Studios; Telzrow, Brian; Volume; White, Curtis

Subjects: African American; African American--History.; African Methodist Episcopal Church.; Audio equipment industry; Church of God and Christ; Cleveland (Ohio); Cleveland (Ohio)--History.; Cleveland Indians (Baseball team).; Detroit (Mich.); History of science and technology; Motown Record Corporation.; Music; Record labels.; Schneider, Hank.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History

GPS: Cleveland (Ohio)
Map Coordinates: 41.4993, 81.6944