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00:00:00 - Film and televison

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Partial Transcript: Okay, today is Tuesday, September 30th. I'm speaking again to Vlad Maleckar.

Segment Synopsis: Maleckar discusses his work in films and television.

Keywords: Acting; Agency Recording; Boris, Nicholas; Boris, Nick; Broadcasting; California; Cameramen; Chagrin Falls (Ohio); Cleveland Orchestra; Disc jockeys; Films; Maleckar, Vlad; Maleckar, Vladimir; Motion pictures; Movie shorts; Movies; Pathé; Pathé films; Recording, live; Studio films; Television

Subjects: Acting.; Broadcasting.; California; Chagrin Falls (Ohio); Cleveland Orchestra.; Disc jockeys; History of science and technology; Motion pictures; Music; Pathé Entertainment (Firm); Radio; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Television

GPS: Chagrin Falls (Ohio)
Map Coordinates: 41.431111, -81.388611
00:06:35 - Interest in the recording business

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Partial Transcript: That's right. Like, you know, uh, records, Edison cylinders, you know.

Segment Synopsis: Maleckar discusses what first sparked his interest in audio recording.

Keywords: Audio engineering; Bakelite; Boy Mechanic; Crystal sets; Fillmore; Headphones, Fillmore; Maleckar, Vlad; Maleckar, Vladimir; Phonographs; Phonographs, Edison; Popular Mechanics; Professions; Radios; Radios, crystal; Records, kinds of: cylinders

Subjects: Bakelite; Headphones; History of science and technology; Music; Phonograph.; Popular Mechanics Company; Radio; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History

00:13:35 - Nicollette Maleckar

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Partial Transcript: And, were you, um--had you gotten married at this point?

Segment Synopsis: Maleckar talks about his wife, Nicollette Zweig Maleckar.

Keywords: A Letter to Three Wives (Motion picture); Continuity directors; Film studios; Freud, Sigmund; Judaism; Maleckar, Nicollette; Maleckar, Nicollette Zweig; Maleckar, Vlad; Maleckar, Vladimir; Marriages; Professions; Recording business; Script girls; Studios, film; Wives; Zweig, Arnold; Zweig, Nicollette; Zweig, Stefan

Subjects: Continuity (Motion pictures, television, etc.); History of science and technology; Judaism; Marriage.; Motion pictures.; Music; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Wives; Zweig, Arnold, 1887-1968.; Zweig, Stefan, 1881-1942.

00:16:59 - Technology at Audio Recording

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Partial Transcript: So, anyway, when you got married you were forging your career at the same time and--

Segment Synopsis: Maleckar discusses the audio engineering technology available at Audio Recording.

Keywords: Acoustics; Ampex; Ampex Corporation; Ampex Electric Corporation; Audio Recorders; Audio devices; Cab drivers; Chicago (Ill.); Circuits, echo drive; Cleveland (Ohio); Columbia Records; Columbia Records, Inc.; Consoles (mixing); Consoles, RCA; EMT plates; EMT reverb chambers; Echo (reverberation) chambers; Echo chambers; Echoes; Eddy, Duane (Artist); Elektromesstechnik; Equalization; Equalizers; Gigax, Bruce; Maleckar, Vlad; Maleckar, Vladimir; Microphones, placement of; Mixing board; Pads, acoustical; Phoenix (Ariz.); Recorders, tape; Recorders, tape (models): Ampex 2-channel recorder; Recorders, tape (models): Ampex 350 full-track model; Recorders, tape (models): Concert; Recorders, tape (models): Rangertone; Recording heads; Recording, tape; Retirement; Reverberation; Russ, Al; Salaries; Stereo; Stereophonic; Studio Films; Tanks; Taxi drivers; Transducers

Subjects: Ampex Corporation; Chicago (Ill.); Columbia Records, Inc.; History of science and technology; Microphone; Motion pictures; Music; Phoenix (Ariz.); Retirement.; Salaries; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Stereophonic sound systems.; Transducers.Eddy, Duane

GPS: Cleveland (Ohio)
Map Coordinates: 41.4993, 81.6944
00:26:48 - Connection to Chess Records

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Partial Transcript: Uh, Phil Chess did a lot of work at my studio. I, I, I, did a lot of the Bo Diddley things.

Segment Synopsis: Maleckar discusses his connection to Chess Records.

Keywords: Al Russ Orchestra (Artist); Anderson, Leroy; Be Bop Baby (Song); Belkin Brothers; Buckeye Theater; Buckeye Theatre; Chess Records; Chess, Phil; Cleveland (Ohio); Cleveland Recording; Costa, Don; Decca Records; Diddley, Bo; Distributors; Elius, Thomas; Elius, Tom; Glasser, Dick; Gormé, Eydie (Artist); Hamann, Ken; Hamann, Kenneth Richard; International music; Joy, Lenny; Joy, Leonard; Los Angeles (Calif); Love Letters (Song); Maduri, Carl; Maleckar, Vlad; Maleckar, Vladimir; Many Moods (Album); McDaniel, Ellas “Bo Diddley” (Artist); Music producers; Nelson, Eric Hilliard "Ricky" (Artist); Nelson, Ricky (Artist); Oh Happy Day (Song); Paramount Records; Perry-Payne Building; Petitio, Joe; Polka music; Popular music; Promoters; Records, kinds of: long-playing (LP); Russ, Al; Sales managers; Schneider, Hank; Schneider, Kay; Sebac, Fred; William Morris Agency; William Morris Endeavor; William Morris Endeavor Entertainment

Subjects: Al Russ Orchestra; Anderson, Leroy, 1908-1975; Chess Records (Firm); Chess, Phil, 1921-2016; Cleveland (Ohio); Costa, Don; Decca Records (Firm); Glasser, Dick; Gorme, Eydie; History of science and technology; International music; Joy, Leonard; Los Angeles (Calif.); Music; Nelson, Richard, 1940-; Paramount (Sound recording label); Polka music; Popular music; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; William Morris Agency

GPS: Cleveland (Ohio)
Map Coordinates: 41.4993, 81.6944
00:37:55 - Partners in the recording business

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Partial Transcript: You know, I, I tried calling Joe--this was back in the beginning when I was just casting my net as wide as I could to get hold of anybody and, you know various, like, requirements, deadlines and things got in the way so some of the threads of research just kind of got cut off temporarily, but I called Joe Petito one time.

Segment Synopsis: Maleckar discusses Victor Salupo and Joe Petito, two of his partners in the recording business.

Keywords: Aaronson, Art; Advertising; Agencies, advertising; Aronson, Art; Cleveland (Ohio); Cleveland Heights (Ohio); Edinburgh International Film Festival; Family of Man; Fiddles; Film distributors; Film production; Film scores; Film scoring; Greene, Laura (Artist); Grossman Music; Italian Americans; King, Don; Library of Congress; Long Island (N.Y.); Maleckar, Vlad; Maleckar, Vladimir; Managers; Manhattan (New York, N.Y.); Motion pictures; Petito, Joe; Photographers; Recording, film; Salupo, Vic; Salupo, Victor; Saxophones; Schubert’s; Soundtracks; Streetcar (Motion picture); Streetcars; Studio managers; Teaching; Trolley cars; Trolleys; Violins; Wood, Jasper

Subjects: Advertising.; Aronson, Arthur A.; Cleveland (Ohio); Cleveland Heights (Ohio); Edinburgh International Film Festival; Greene, Laura; History of science and technology; Italian Americans.; King, Don; Library of Congress.; Long Island (N.Y.); Manhattan (New York, N.Y.); Motion pictures; Music; Photographers.; Salupo, Victor; Saxophone.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Soundtracks.; Trolley cars; Violins.; Wood, Jasper

GPS: Cleveland (Ohio)
Map Coordinates: 41.4993, 81.6944
00:49:48 - Time as an insurance salesperson

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Partial Transcript: I sold, uh, insurance in the ghetto for about, almost a year, six months.

Segment Synopsis: Maleckar discusses his time as an insurance salesperson in Cleveland (Ohio).

Keywords: African Americans; Cleveland (Ohio); Cleveland State University; Cow-Cow Boogie (Song); Cuyahoga Community College; Davenport, Carl; Ghettos; Insurance; Maleckar, Vlad; Maleckar, Vladimir; Memphis (Tenn.); Piano rolls; Racism

Subjects: African Americans; Cleveland (Ohio); Cleveland State University; Cuyahoga Community College; History of science and technology; Insurance.; Memphis (Tenn.); Music; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History

GPS: Cleveland (Ohio)
Map Coordinates: 41.4993, 81.6944
00:52:35 - Job titles in recording studios

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Partial Transcript: Um--

Segment Synopsis: Maleckar discusses the hierarchy of professions in recording studios and the different titles for audio engineers.

Keywords: A&R (artist and repertoire); A&R department; Audio engineers; Balance; Balancing; Barrett, Ronnie; Casden, Andy; Columbia Records; Columbia Records, Inc.; Costa, Don; Diamonof, Al; Disc jockeys; Drummers; Duroe, Mike; Engineers; Germany; Howe, Dayton “Bones”; Las Vegas (Nev.); Maleckar, Vlad; Maleckar, Vladimir; McKee, Bob (Artist); Mixing; Mone, Dick; Music producers; Music producers, independent; Musicians; Producers; Professions; Putnam, Bill; Recordists; Salupo, Vic; Salupo, Victor; Sound engineers; Tape operators; Tonmeister; Tracy, Wendell (Artist)

Subjects: Columbia Records, Inc.; Costa, Don; Disc jockeys; Drummers (Musicians); German; History of science and technology; Howe, Bones; Las Vegas (Nev.); McKee, Bob; Music; Musicians.; Putnam, Bill.; Salupo, Victor; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Tracy, Wendell

GPS: Las Vegas (Nev.)
Map Coordinates: 36.175, -115.136389
01:08:29 - Experiences editing the Cleveland Orchestra

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Partial Transcript: And you were a great editor, I hear.

Segment Synopsis: Maleckar discusses his time as the music editor for the Cleveland Orchestra.

Keywords: Al Russ Orchestra (Artist); Cleveland (Ohio); Cleveland Orchestra; Conducting; Conductors; Debussy, Claude; Editing; Editors; Germany; Gigax, Bruce; La Mer (Song); Maazel, Lorin; Maleckar, Vlad; Maleckar, Vladimir; Russ, Al (Artist); Splices; Splicing; Szell, George

Subjects: Al Russ Orchestra; Cleveland (Ohio); Cleveland Orchestra; Conducting.; Debussy, Claude, 1862-1918.; Germany; History of science and technology; Maazel, Lorin, 1930-2014; Music; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Szell, George, 1897-1970.

GPS: Cleveland (Ohio)
Map Coordinates: 41.4993, 81.6944
01:11:57 - The creative process and recording

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Partial Transcript: Alright, well, we're getting of course, again here.

Segment Synopsis: Maleckar discusses the creative process in audio recording.

Keywords: Caruso, Enrico (Artist); Classical music; Crosby, Bing (Artist); DBX; Decibel reduction scales; Decibels; Equalization; Maleckar, Vlad; Maleckar, Vladimir; Manipulation; Microphones and distortion; Microphones, placement of; Mixing; Mixing, automated; Multi-tracking; Music; Musicians; Olson, Harry; Overdubbing; Paul, Les; Pavarotti, Luciano (Artist); Performers; Recorders, disc; Recorders, disc to disc; Recorders, tape; Recording; Reduction scales; Sales; Technology; Three Tenors, the (Artist)

Subjects: Caruso, Enrico, 1873-1921.; Crosby, Bing, 1903-1977; Decibels; History of science and technology; Microphone; Music; Musician; Paul, Les; Pavarotti, Luciano.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History

01:22:30 - Training / views on rock and roll

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Partial Transcript: Well, did you, um, I mean, did you have any training under anybody else?

Segment Synopsis: Maleckar discusses the training he received to be an audio engineer and talks about his views on rock and roll musicians.

Keywords: Ampex; Ampex Electric Corporation; Arizona; Audio Recording; Audio engineering; Audio engineers; Choir, the (Artist); Distortion; Education; Experiments; Harmonies; Hazelwood, Lee; Hollywood (Calif.); It’s Cold Outside (Song); Maleckar, Vlad; Maleckar, Vladimir; Money; Multi-tracking; Music business; Music industry; Music producers; Musicians; Observations; Oh Happy Day (Song); Phillips, Sam; Ponytails, the (Artist); Presley, Elvis (Artist); Recorders, tape; Recorders, tape (models): Ampex full-track model 400; Recording business; Recording sessions; Rock and roll bands; Rock bands; Rock music; Rock ’n’ roll; Schneider, Hank; Score paper; Spector, Phil; Training

Subjects: Ampex Corporation; Arizona; Choir (Musical group : Cleveland, Ohio); Choir (Musical group); Education; Hazelwood, Lee; History of science and technology; Money; Music; Musicians.; Phillips, Sam.; Presley, Elvis, 1935-1977.; Rock music.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Spector, Phil

GPS: Hollywood (Calif.)
Map Coordinates: 34.1, -118.333333
01:32:03 - Work with other audio engineers and music producers / books on recording

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Partial Transcript: Um, can you give me examples of the people you did work with?

Segment Synopsis: Maleckar and Schmidt Horning discuss various audio engineers and books about the history of the recording business.

Keywords: Aday, Michael “Meat Loaf”; Arrangers; Boone, Pat (Artist); Brown, James (Artist); Charles, Bobby (Artist); Cincinnati (Ohio); Cleveland (Ohio); Decca Records; Escott, Colin; Gillett, Charlie; Good Rockin’ Tonight (Book); Grand Funk Railroad (Artist); Hawkins, Dale (Artist); Head, Roy (Artist); Hi Records; Hickey, Ersel (Artist); Jones, Tom (Artist); Justis, Bill; King Records; Knight, Terry; Logston, Jimmy (Artist); Maduri, Carl; Maleckar, Vlad; Maleckar, Vladimir; Mixing; Murphy, Jimmy (Artist); Muskalin, Joey; Nashville (Tenn.); Owens, Steve (Artist); Polka music; Popovich, Steve; Raunchy (Song); Record companies; Record labels; Schirmer Trade Books; Simon and Schuster; Singers; Sound of the City, the (Book); Sound of the City: The Rise of Rock and Roll (Book); Starday Records; Sun Records; Tattooed on Their Tongues (Book); Tattooed on Their Tongues: Journey through the Backrooms of American Music (Book); Tucker, Timmy (Artist); Vocalists; Vocalists (singers); Witness Protection Program; Witness protection; Woodward, Thomas Jones “Tom Jones” (Artist)

Subjects: Boone, Pat.; Brown, James, 1933-2006.; Charles, Bobby; Cincinnati (Ohio); Decca Records (Firm); Escott, Colin; Gillett, Charlie; Grand Funk Railroad (Musical group); Hawkins, Dale; Hawkins, Dale, 1936-2010; Head, Roy; Hickey, Ersel; History of science and technology; Jones, Tom, 1940-; Justis, Bill; Knight, Terry; Meat Loaf (Vocalist), 1947-; Murphy, Jimmy, 1925-1981; Music; Nashville (Tenn.); Owens, Steve (Vocalist); Polka music.; Popovich, Steve J.; Record labels; Simon and Schuster, Inc.; Singers.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Starday Records, Inc.; Sun Records; Tucker, Tommy, 1933-1982; Witness protection

GPS: Cincinnati (Ohio)
Map Coordinates: 39.1, -84.516667
01:43:19 - Recording in Cleveland (Ohio)

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Partial Transcript: You know, every time I start to talk to people from Cleveland, I realize that this--really, I could do my whole dissertation on Cleveland.

Segment Synopsis: Maleckar discusses the recording and music business in Cleveland (Ohio).

Keywords: Addison, Mark; Advertising; Advertising Agencies; Agencies, advertising; Austin (Tex.); Budapest (Hungary); Chicago (Ill.); Cleveland (Ohio); Cleveland Institute of Music; Cleveland International Records; Cleveland Recording; Competition; Criticisms; Los Angeles (Calif.); Maleckar, Vlad; Maleckar, Vladimir; Musicians; Musicians, rock; Nashville (Tenn.); New York (N.Y.); Popovich, Steve; Recording business

Subjects: Advertising; Advertising agencies.; Austin (Tex.); Budapest (Hungary); Chicago (Ill.); Cleveland (Ohio); Cleveland Institute of Music; Criticism.; History of science and technology; Los Angeles (Calif.); Music; Musicians; Nashville (Tenn.); New York (N.Y.); Popovich, Steve J.; Rock music; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History

GPS: Cleveland (Ohio)
Map Coordinates: 41.4993, 81.6944
01:52:35 - Board of directors of Audio Recording / work in advertising

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Partial Transcript: Who was the board of directors?

Segment Synopsis: Maleckar discusses his work in advertising, as well as the board of directors at Audio Recording.

Keywords: Advertisements; Advertising; Advertising agencies; Agencies, advertising; Audio Recording; Bailo, Al; Board of directors; Bookkeepers; Boy Scouts of America (BSA); Business; Chemical engineering; Chicago (Ill.); Commercials; Costa, Don; Farmers; Firestone Tire and Rubber Company; Jingles; Ketchum, MacLeod & Grove, Inc.; Ketchum, MacLeod, and Grove; Ketchum, Sandy; King, Michael; King, Mike; Maleckar, Vlad; Maleckar, Vladimir; Maple Heights (Ohio); Marcus Advertising; Meldrum and Fewsmith; Moen; Newell Brands; Overdubbing; Picker International; Power Station, the; Recording business; Rettger, Mary Ann; Rosenberg, Arnie; Rubbermaid; Secretaries; Stage, George; Telzrow, Brian; Tractors; Voiceovers; WKYW (Radio station); Westinghouse Electric Corporation; Women

Subjects: Advertising; Advertising agencies; Bookkeepers; Boy Scouts of America.; Business; Chemical engineering.; Chicago (Ill.); Costa, Don; Farmers; Firestone Tire and Rubber Company; History of science and technology; Jingles (Advertising songs); King, Mike; Maple Heights (Cuyahoga County, Ohio); Meldrum and Fewsmith, Inc.; Music; Rubbermaid Incorporated; Secretaries; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Tractors.; Westinghouse Electric Corporation

GPS: Chicago (Ill.)
Map Coordinates: 41.836944, -87.684722
02:04:32 - Reasons why Cleveland (Ohio) was not a leading recording city

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Partial Transcript: Well, where we started, actually, I was getting your, sort of, general feelings about Cleveland as a recording place and you--

Segment Synopsis: Maleckar discusses the reasons why Cleveland (Ohio) was not considered a leading city in the recording business.

Keywords: Advertising; Advertising agencies; Agencies, advertising; American Federation of Musicians (AFM); Associated Musicians of Greater New York; Bell Sound Studios; Charry, Michael; Cleveland (Ohio); Cleveland Orchestra; Columbia Records; Columbia Records, Inc.; Costa, Don; Country music; Drummers; Eydie Swings The Blues (Album); Film studios; Gormé, Eydie (Artist); Heard, Eugene “Fats” (Artist); Local 802; Los Angeles (Calif.); Maleckar, Vlad; Maleckar, Vladimir; McKee, Bob (Artist); McKee, Bobby (Artist); Money; Music producers; Music scores; Musicians; Nashville (Tenn.); Nashville Symphony; New York (N.Y.); Popovich, Steve; Popular music; Producers; Projects; Recording; Society of Professional Recording Services (SPARS); Soundtracks; Waite, Don

Subjects: Advertising; Advertising agencies; American Federation of Musicians.; Bell (Sound recording label; Charry, Michael; Cleveland (Ohio); Columbia Records, Inc.; Costa, Don; Country music.; Drummers (Musicians); Gorme, Eydie; Heard, Fats; History of science and technology; Los Angeles (Calif.); McKee, Robert; Money; Music; Musicians.; Nashville (Tenn.); Nashville Symphony; New York (N.Y.); Popovich, Steve J.; Popular music; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Soundtracks

GPS: Cleveland (Ohio)
Map Coordinates: 41.4993, 81.6944
02:09:55 - Reasons for staying in Cleveland (Ohio)

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Partial Transcript: So, uh--

Segment Synopsis: Maleckar discusses the reasons why he stayed in Cleveland (Ohio).

Keywords: Browning, Bill (Artist); Cleveland (Ohio); Cleveland Heights (Ohio); Cleveland Orchestra; Country music; Deep Hollow (Song); Education; Families; Guitarists; Maleckar, Vlad; Maleckar, Vladimir; Music reading; Musicians; Performers; Putnam, Bill; Rock and roll; Rock music; Rock ’n’ Roll; St. Albans (W. Va.); Steel guitarists

Subjects: Browning, Bill (Country musician); Cleveland (Ohio); Cleveland Heights (Ohio); Cleveland Orchestra.; Country music.; Education; Families; Guitarists; History of science and technology; Music; Musicians; Putnam, Bill; Rock music; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History

GPS: Cleveland (Ohio)
Map Coordinates: 41.4993, 81.6944
02:13:25 - Major and minor record labels

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Partial Transcript: Yeah, and--(sighs)--but the, then, then it begs the question, how did these studios--well, there's the ad business, true, but, um, the studios still served a purpose here...

Segment Synopsis: Maleckar and Schmidt Horning discuss the differences in recording technique and technology between major and minor record labels.

Keywords: Advertisements, political; Advertising; Advertising agencies; Al Russ Orchestra; Ampex; Ampex Corporation; Ampex Electric Corporation; Anderson, Leroy; Arrangers; Auditoriums; Boris, Charlotte; Boris, Nick; Businesses; Chess Records; Chicago (Ill.); Cigarettes; Cincinnati (Ohio); Cleveland (Ohio); Cleveland Recording; Columbus (Ohio); Commercials; Consoles (mixing); Country music; Decca Records; Detroit (Mich.); Echoes; Equipment; Hamann, Ken; Hamann, Kenneth Richard; International music; Jingles; Maleckar, Vlad; Maleckar, Vladimir; Many Moods (Album); Mercury Records; Microphones, placement of; Mixing; Money; Music producers; Musicians; Nashville (Tenn.); New Orleans (La.); New York (N.Y.); Polka music; RCA Records; Record companies; Record labels; Recorders, tape (models): Ampex full-track model 400; Recording; Rock and roll; Rock ’n’ roll; Russ, Al (Artist); Smoking; Studio Films

Subjects: Advertising agencies; Advertising.; Al Russ Orchestra; Ampex Corporation; Chess Records (Firm); Chicago (Ill.); Cincinnati (Ohio); Cleveland (Ohio); Columbus (Ohio); Country music.; Decca Records (Firm); Detroit (Mich.); History of science and technology; International music.; Jingles (Advertising songs); Microphone; Money; Music; Musicians; Nashville (Tenn.); New Orleans (La.); New York (N.Y.); Polka music; RCA Records; Record labels; Rock music; Smoking.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History

GPS: Cleveland (Ohio)
Map Coordinates: 41.4993, 81.6944