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00:00:00 - Music producing and editing

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Partial Transcript: Okay--

Segment Synopsis: Scott gives an overview of his career as an audio engineer and music producer, beginning with his work at Columbia Records with Buddy Graham. He then talks about the various audio devices available at the beginning of his career, including a discussion regarding the switch from disc recording to tape recording. He also talks about editing recordings for the Budapest Quartet.

Keywords: Audio engineering; Audio engineers; Avakian,George; Board engineers; Bruno, Frank; Budapest Quartet (Artist); California; Chapman, Harold; Cleveland (Ohio); Columbia Records; Columbia Records, Inc; Cord club; Cutting engineers; Editing; Editing engineers; Editors; Electronics; Engineers, cutting; Graham, Ed "Buddy"; Location recording; Microphones; Monaural recording; Mono; Multi-tracking; New York (N.Y.); Pads; Philadelphia (Pa.); Plaut, Fred; RCA Records; RCA Victor; Razor blades; Record cutters; Record cutting; Recorders, multi-track; Recorders, tape; Recording; Recording directors; Recording lathes; Recording, monaural; Recording, mono; Recording, multi-track; Recording, remote; Recording, stereo; Recording, stereophonic; Recording, tape; Remote recording; Sacks, Manie; Scott, Howard; Sinatra, Frank (Artist); Sound engineers; Splice; Splicing; Stereo; Stereophonic; Stereophonic recording; Szell, George; Theroux Adjutor; Toronto (Ontario); Training; Waller, Bob; Washington (D.C.)

Subjects: Avakian, George; Bruno, Frank; California; Chapman, Harold; Cleveland (Ohio); Columbia Records, Inc.; History of science and technology; Lathes; Microphone; Music; New York (N.Y.); Philadelphia (Pa.); RCA Records; Record labels.; Scott, Howard, 1921-; Sinatra, Frank, 1907-; Sinatra, Frank, 1915-1998.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Stereophonic sound systems.; Szell, George, 1897-1970.; Toronto (Ont.); Washington (D.C.)

GPS: New York (N.Y.)
Map Coordinates: 40.7127, -74.0059
00:07:58 - Salary of artists and repertoire department

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Partial Transcript: I remember there was a comment you made about, uh, something like, I, uh, you know, you were joking around...

Segment Synopsis: Scott discusses the salary he made working in the artists and repertoire department of Columbia Records, Inc. He also talks about his work as an artists and repertoire person, which he considered a step down from being an audio engineer. Scott then talks about how people who worked in classical music made less than people who worked with popular music.

Keywords: A&R (artist and repertoire); A&R department; Artists and Repertoire; Audio engineers; Avakian, George; Broadway; Broadway show tunes; Classical music; Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS); Columbia Records; Columbia Records, Inc.; Hourly; International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW); Kostelanetz, André; Money; Overtime; Popular music; Records, kinds of: long-playing (LP); Salaries; Scott, Howard; Sound engineers; Unions; Weekly

Subjects: Avakian, George; Columbia Broadcasting System, inc.; Columbia Records, Inc.; History of science and technology; International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers; Kostelanetz, Andre, 1901-1980; Music; Record labels.; Scott, Howard, 1921-; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History

00:10:47 - Training

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Partial Transcript: Do you have any idea how they were hired?

Segment Synopsis: Scott discusses his background in music and his on-the-job training. He then talks about the background and education of several other audio engineers, some of whom learned audio engineering in the Signal Corps and some who came from radio broadcasting.

Keywords: A&R (artist and repertoire); A&R department; American Record Company; Army; Artists and Repertoire; Bachman, Bill; Bachman, William; Brown, Jack; Chapman, Harold; Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS); Columbia Records; Columbia Records, Inc; Cornell University; Degrees; Eastman School of Music; Education; Electrical engineering; Electrical engineers; France; Graham, Edward "Buddy"; Hiring; Lehigh University; Lieberson, Goddard; Liebler, Vin; Liebler, Vincent; Microphones; Miller, Mitch; Oppenheim, David; Plaut, Fred; Radio; School; Scott, Howard; Signal Corps; Sorbonne; Theroux Adjutor; Training; Turner, Carl; École Polytechnique

Subjects: American Record Company; Bachman, William S.; Chapman, Harold; Columbia Broadcasting System, inc.; Columbia Records, Inc.; Cornell University.; Eastman School of Music.; Ecole Polytechnique; Electrical engineering.; France; Graham, Edward; History of science and technology; Lehigh University; Miller, Mitch; Music; Oppenheim, David, 1922-2007; Record labels.; Scott, Howard, 1921-; Sorbonne; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Turner, Carl B.

00:13:59 - Collaboration with other engineers

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Partial Transcript: Did I tell you I came across a copy of the Columbia Retailer from, like, 1955 where you were playing the celeste?

Segment Synopsis: Scott talks about his involvement with the 'Columbia Hot Five,' a promotional record for Columbia Records, Inc. He then talks about working together 'in total harmony' with his fellow audio engineers.

Keywords: African Americans; Avakian, George; Capitol Records; Celesta; Celeste; Charles, Ray (Artist); Collaborations; Columbia Hot Five, the (Artist); Columbia Records; Columbia Records, Inc.; Columbia Retailer (Album); Decca Records; Families; Films; Founders; Harmonies; I Got a Woman (Song); Jones, Lee; Kapp, Dave; Lieberson, Goddard; Livingston, Alan; MGM Records; Mercury Records; Motion pictures; Movies; National Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences; National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences; New York (N.Y.); RCA Records; Record business; Record industry; York, Bob

Subjects: African American; Avakian, George; Capitol Records, Inc.; Celesta; Charles, Ray, 1918-2015; Charles, Ray, 1930-2004.; Columbia Records, Inc.; Decca Records (Firm); History of science and technology; Livingston, Alan; Livingston, Alan W.; Livingston, Alan W., 1917-2009; Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.; Music; National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences (U.S.); New York (N.Y.); Record labels.; Scott, Howard, 1921-; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History

GPS: New York (N.Y.)
Map Coordinates: 40.7127, -74.0059
00:18:01 - Early recording experiences

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Partial Transcript: Did they expect people other than the engineers to know anything about recording when they--I mean, did you and George, for instance, know anything about recording before you came into--

Segment Synopsis: Scott discusses how he knew very little about recording before starting at Columbia Records with Goddard Lieberson. He then talks about his first recording experience with Andre Kostelanetz at Liederkranz Hall. He talks about working with various heads of Columbia Masterworks. Scott then talks about his experience with long-playing records.

Keywords: Army; Clarinetists; Clarinets; Columbia Masterworks; Columbia Records; Columbia Records, Inc.; Conductors; Control rooms; Eastman School of Music; Electronic; Equalizers; Equalizing; Gilbert, Dick; Gilbert, Richard; Holliday, Judy (Artist); Juilliard; Juilliard School, the; Kostelanetz, André; Liederkranz Hall; Microphones; New York University; New York University School of Art; O'Connell, Charles; Oppenheim, Dave; Oppenheim, David; Philadelphia (Pa.); RCA Victor; Recorders, tape; Recording business; Recording directors; Recording, tape; Records, kinds of: Long-playing (LP); Records, kinds of: shellac; Scott, Howard; Serkin, Rudolf (Artist); Serkin, Rudy (Artist); Sound waves; Trainees; United States Army; Walter, Bruno (Artist)

Subjects: Audio equipment industry; Clarinet; Columbia Records, Inc.; Conductors (Music); Eastman School of Music; Gilbert, Richard; History of science and technology; Holliday, Judy.; Kostelanetz, Andre, 1901-1980; Microphone; Music; New York University.; Oppenheim, David, 1922-2007; Philadelphia (Pa.); RCA Records; Record labels.; Scott, Howard, 1921-; Serkin, Rudolf, 1903-1991; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; United States. Army.; Walter, Bruno, 1876-1962

GPS: Philadelphia (Pa.)
Map Coordinates: 39.95, -75.166667
00:22:13 - Tape recording

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Partial Transcript: And I learned from doing shellacs to, to, to disc.

Segment Synopsis: Scott discusses the effect of the advent of multi-track tape recording on the music industry, which was used initially as a back-up to disc recording and then became the primary recording method. He discusses the various tape and disc recorders he utilized, and talks about the innovations of William Bachman.

Keywords: 2-track; Adhesive tape, Scotch; Ampex; Ampex Corporation; Ampex Electric Corporation; Audio devices; Bachman, Bill; Bachman, William; Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS); Cuts; Cutting; Discs; Echo (reverberation) chambers; Equalizers; Equalizing; Liebler, Vin; Liebler, Vincent; Microphones; Multi-tracking; Recorders, multi-track; Recorders, tape; Recording business; Recording lathes, Scully; Recording tape; Recording tape, monaural; Recording tape, mono; Recording tape, stereo; Recording tape, stereophonic; Recording, tape; Records, kinds of: shellac; Scott, Howard; Scully cutting lathe; Scully record cutter; Speakers; Splices; Splicing; Stylus; Stylus, heated; Tape Delays; Tape machine; Two track; Two-track

Subjects: Ampex Corporation; Audio equipment industry; Bachman, William S.; Columbia Broadcasting System, inc.; History of science and technology; Lathes; Microphone; Music; Record labels.; Scott, Howard, 1921-; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Stylus

00:24:58 - Remote recording

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Partial Transcript: And fortunately, though, we had two great studios.

Segment Synopsis: Scott discusses the challenges of recording on location at places such as Liederkranz Hall, a Greek Orthodox church, and Carnegie Hall. He talks about the remote recording audio engineers and the specialized equipment utilized for recording on location.

Keywords: A&R (artist and repertoire); A&R department; Academy of Music, the; Acoustical; Acoustics; American Academy of Music; Artists and Repertoire; Avakian, George; Bachman, Bill; Bachman, William; Broadwood Hotel; Brooklyn (New York, N.Y.); Bruno, Frank; Carnegie Hall; Cash, Johnny (Artist); Chicago (Ill.); Chicago Auditorium; Churches; Cleveland (Ohio); Columbia Records; Columbia Records, Inc.; Concert Halls; Concerts; Country and Western; Country music; Davis, Clive; Davis, Miles; Delays; Double machines; EMT plates; EMT reverb chambers; Echo (reverberation) chambers; Elektromesstechnik; Elektromesstechnik plates; Elektromesstechnik reverb chamber; Equalization; Equalizing; Garner, Erroll (Artist); Germany; Gospel music; Greek Orthodox Church; Halls; Hotel St. George; Kansas City (Mo.); Library of Congress; Liebler, Vincent; Liederkranz Hall; Lincoln Center; Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts; Manhattan Hotel; Masonic Halls; Masonic Order; Masonic Temple; Massey Hall; Mathis, Johnny (Artist); Microphones, placement of; New York (N.Y.); New York Philharmonic Orchestra; Nightclubs; Oppenheim, Dave; Oppenheim, David; Ormandy, Eugene; Philadelphia (Pa.); Pianos; Planes; Presidents; Railroads; Recorders, double; Recording studios; Recording, on location; Recording, remote; Remotes; San Francisco (Calif.); Scott, Howard; Severance Hall; Studios; Theroux, Adjutor; Toronto (Canada); Toronto (Ont.); Washington (D.C.)

Subjects: Academy of Music (Philadelphia, Pa.); American Academy of Music (Philadelphia, Pa.); Avakian, George; Bachman, William S.; Brooklyn (New York, N.Y.); Carnegie Hall (New York, N.Y.); Cash, Johnny.; Chicago (Ill.); Chicago Auditorium Building (Chicago, Ill.); Cleveland (Ohio); Columbia Records, Inc.; Country music.; Davis, Clive; Davis, Miles.; Garner, Erroll; Gospel music.; History of science and technology; Hotel St. George (Brooklyn, New York, N.Y.); Kansas City (Mo.); Library of Congress.; Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts.; Masonic Temple (Washington, D.C.); Massey Hall (Toronto, Ont.); Mathis, Johnny; Microphone; Music; New York (N.Y.); New York Philharmonic; Oppenheim, David, 1922-2007; Ormandy, Eugene, 1899-1985; Philadelphia (Pa.); Piano; Record labels.; San Francisco (Calif.); Scott, Howard, 1921-; Severance Hall (Cleveland, Ohio); Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History

GPS: New York (N.Y.)
Map Coordinates: 40.7127, -74.0059
00:31:06 - Working with musicians

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Partial Transcript: Um, you and George, the kinds of decisions you made, um, and, you know, this will be helpful if I do...

Segment Synopsis: Scott discusses the skills it takes to work with musicians and how his background as a musician helped him to be respected by artists such as Robert Casadesus, Glenn Gould, and Rudy Serkin. He also talks about working in the studio with legendary violinist Isaac Stern.

Keywords: A&R (artist and repertoire); A&R department; Arabesque Records; Artists and Repertoire; Avakian, George; Botsford, Ward; Bruno, Frank; Casadesus, Robert; Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS); Columbia Records; Columbia Records, Inc.; Epstein, Steve; France; French; Goodman, Benny (Artist); Gould, Glenn (Artist); Grammy Awards; Gramophones; Hitler, Adolf; Laico, Frank; Miller, Mitch; Music producers; Music reading; Music scores; Musicians; Pianists; Plaut, Fred; Producers; RCA Records; Record producers; Recording directors; Recording studios; Records, kinds of: long-playing (LP); Savory, Bill; Savory, William; Scores; Scott, Howard; Second World War; Serkin, Rudolf (Artist); Serkin, Rudy (Artist); Shepherd, Tom; Sorbonne; Sorbonne, the; Stern, Isaac (Artist); Studios; Washington (D.C.); Westminster Records; World War II; World War Two

Subjects: Avakian, George; Bachman, William S.; Botsford, Ward; Casadesus, Robert, 1899-1972; Columbia Broadcasting System, inc.; Columbia Records, Inc.; Epstein, Steve; Epstein, Steven; France; Goodman, Benny; Gould, Glenn.; Grammy Awards.; History of science and technology; Hitler, Adolf, 1889-1945.; Miller, Mitch; Music; Piano; RCA Records; Record labels.; Scott, Howard, 1921-; Serkin, Rudolf, 1903-1991; Shepherd, Tom; Sorbonne; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Stern, Isaac, 1862-1932; Washington (D.C.); World War, 1939-1945

GPS: Washington (D.C.)
Map Coordinates: 38.904722, -77.016389
00:40:51 - Leroy Friedman

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Partial Transcript: By the way, if you're interested in the, in the transfers of--

Segment Synopsis: Scott discusses fellow sound engineer Leroy Friedman, a chemical engineer who worked on the creation of the long-playing record.

Keywords: Chemical engineering; Chemical engineers; City College of New York; Columbia Masterworks; Columbia Records; Columbia Records, Inc.; Engineering; Florida; Friedman, Leroy; Hunter, Jim; Liebler, Vin; Liebler, Vincent; Manufacturing; Masters; Mothers; Music producers; Record manufacturing; Records, kinds of: lacquer masters; Records, kinds of: long-playing (LPs); Records, kinds of: shellac; Schick, Charles; Scott, Howard; Stampers; Wexler, Paul

Subjects: Chemical engineering.; Columbia Records, Inc.; Engineering.; Florida; History of science and technology; Hunter, Jim; Music; Record labels.; Schick, Charles; Schick, Charlie; Scott, Howard, 1921-; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Wexler, Paul

00:44:01 - Collaboration with artists

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Partial Transcript: Oh, when you were talking to, um, wha, uh, Leonard Bernstein in the cab on the way to the session, what was it that you guys were deciding on--

Segment Synopsis: Scott discusses working on Don Juan with Leonard Bernstein. He talks about the particular things that the two discussed regarding the recording, such as microphone placement and balance.

Keywords: Accents; Accompaniments; Beethoven; Beethoven, Ludwig van; Bernstein, Leonard; Concerts; Conductors; Der Ring des Nibelungen, WWV 86 (Opera); Don Juan (song); Don Juan, Op. 20 (song); Fiddles; Flutes; Horns; Interaction; McClure, John; Melodies; Microphone, placement of; Oppenheim, Dave; Oppenheim, David; Plaut, Fred; Rehearsals; Ring Cycle, the (Opera); Soloists; St. George Hotel; Strauss, Richard; Violins; Walter, Bruno

Subjects: Beethoven, Ludwig van, 1770-1827.; Bernstein, Leonard; Bernstein, Leonard, 1918-1990.; Flute; History of science and technology; Horns.; McClure, John; Microphone; Music; Oppenheim, David, 1922-2007; Record labels.; Scott, Howard, 1921-; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Strauss, Richard, 1864-1949.; Strauss, Richard, 1864-1949. Don Juan.; Violin; Walter, Bruno, 1876-1962