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00:00:00 - Background

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Partial Transcript: --uh, two thousand. I started to say nineteen something.

Segment Synopsis: Grundy discusses his childhood in Middletown (Conn.) and his early experimentation with sound engineering and sound systems.

Keywords: Amplifiers; Audio devices; Audio engineering; Audio engineers; Audio equipment; Boy Mechanic; Broadcasting; Classes; Electronics; Elementary schools; Equipment; Grade schools; Graduate students; Graduation ceremony; Grammar schools; Grundy, Al; High schools; Hobbies; Hobbyists; Learners, auto-didactic; Materials; Microphones; Middletown (Conn.); Music; New York (N.Y.); Pearl Harbor; Phonographs; Photography; Physics; Physics departments; Popular Mechanics; Popular Science; Presto record cutter; RCA; Radio; Radio News; Radio-Craft Magazine; Reading; Recording; Recording lathes, Presto; Records, kinds of: lacquer; Sciences; Sears, Roebuck & Co.; Sears, Roebuck, and Company; Second World War; Self-taught; Silverstone; Sound engineers; Sound systems; Speak-O-Phones; Technical; Training; Wesleyan University; World War II; World War Two

Subjects: Audio equipment industry; History of science and technology; Microphone; Middletown (Conn.).; Music; New York (N.Y.); Pearl Harbor (Hawaii), Attack on, 1941.; Phonograph.; Physics.; Popular Science book; RCA Corporation. Consumer Electronics; Radio; Record labels.; Sears, Roebuck and Company.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Wesleyan University (Middletown, Conn.); World War, 1939-1945

GPS: Middletown (Conn.)
Map Coordinates: 41.562222, -72.650833
00:11:55 - Radio transcription

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Partial Transcript: But, but what I started to say is that, um, one of the things I've been looking at, just in the last few days, is about the transcription, uh, services that, that kind of grew in the thirties.

Segment Synopsis: Grundy discusses the radio transcription business. The two also talk about the 1942-44 musicians' ban enacted by General James Petrillo.

Keywords: 1942–44 musicians' strike; Acetate Christmas; Air checks; American Federation of Musicians (AFM); Capitol Records; Circle Records; Commercials; Compact discs; DeSylva, Buddy; DeSylva, George; Decca Records; Disc jockeys; Goodman, Benny; Grooves; Grundy, Al; Harry Fox Agency; Hollywood (Calif.); Let’s Dance (Album); Mercer, Johnny (Artist); Musicians strike; Musicians’ strike; Petrillo, James; Petrillo, James C.; Radio; Radio Recorders; Radios; Records, kinds of: acetate; Records, kinds of: rpm ten-inch; Retirement; Royalties; Savory, Bill; Savory, William; Stikes; Transcription; Transcription, radio; Unions; V-disc program; V-discs; Wallichs, Glenn

Subjects: American Federation of Musicians; Capitol Records, Inc.; Decca Records (Firm); Goodman, Benny; Goodman, Benny, 1909-1986; Harry Fox Agency, Inc.; History of science and technology; Hollywood (Calif.); Mercer, Johnny, 1909-1976.; Music; Petrillo, James; Petrillo, James C. (James Caesar), 1892-1984.; Record labels.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History

GPS: Hollywood (Calif.)
Map Coordinates: 34.1, -118.333333
00:17:25 - Audio engineering magazines

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Partial Transcript: So let's get back to Al Grundy.

Segment Synopsis: Grundy discusses his path during high school, focusing on learning about recording and recording local high school bands and weddings with a Presto disc recorder. The two briefly talk about The Sapphire Club and the Audio Engineering Society (AES). Grundy also talks about various recording industry magazines and journals.

Keywords: Audio Engineering Magazine; Audio Engineering Society (AES); Audio Magazine; Audio devices; Audio discs; Audio equipment; Bands; Churches; Consumers; Disc cutters; Electronics; Equipment; Grundy, Al; High schools; Journal of the Audio Engineering Society; McProud, C. G.; Popular Mechanics; Popular Science; Presto; Radio; Recorders, disc; Recorders, wire; Recording lathes; Recording studios; Recording, on location; Recording, remote; Records, kinds of: Presto; Records, kinds of: lacquer; Reeves Soundcraft; Sapphire Club; Sapphire Group; Savory, Bill; Savory, William; Second World War; Sherry, Frank; Silverstone; Sound systems; Spools; Webster Chicago Deck; Weddings; World War II; World War Two

Subjects: Audio Engineering Society; Audio equipment industry; History of science and technology; McProud, C. G.; Music; Record labels.; Sherry, Frank; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; World War, 1939-1945

00:26:05 - Disc recording / record mastering

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Partial Transcript: So, uh, um, you started doing some remote recordings in '46, '47?

Segment Synopsis: Grundy discusses his early career in the 1940s, recording automobile races and telephone guess games. He also talks about Scully and Presto recording lathes that cut discs, which were primarily utilized by studios such as RCA Records and Decca Records.

Keywords: Adapters; Audio engineering; Audio engineers; Automobile racing; Bell Sound Studios; Bridgeport (Conn.); Columbia Records; Columbia Records, Inc.; Decca Records; Disc cutting; Discs; Europe; Fine Recording; Fine, Bob; Germany; Guessing games; Mastering; Mastering, disc; Mastering, independent; Neumann; Porterfield, Eric; RCA Records; RCA Victor; Races, automobile; Record labels; Recorders, tape; Recording lathes, Presto; Recording lathes, Scully; Recording, disc; Recording, on location; Recording, remote; Records; Records, kinds of: Long-playing (LP); Rolls Royce; Scully, Larry, Sr.; Sound engineers; Tape machine; Technical; Telephones; Terminology; Volume; Western Electric; Westrex

Subjects: Audio equipment industry; Automobile racing.; Bell (Sound recording label); Bridgeport (Conn.); Columbia Records, Inc.; Decca Records (Firm); Fine, Bob.; Germany; History of science and technology; Lathes; Music; Neumann; Porterfield, Eric; RCA Records; Record labels.; Rolls-Royce Ltd.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Telephone.; Western Electric Company.; Westrex (Firm)

00:37:51 - The first Neumann recording lathe in the United States

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Partial Transcript: And this, I mean, when--when did they first--was, was this, this, uh, first brought over here by Steve Timmer at Gotham or was there somebody else that was handling Neumann before that?

Segment Synopsis: Grundy discusses how he brought the first Neumann recording lathe to the United States. He also talks about his early career working for the Concert Hall Society.

Keywords: Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft; Beethoven; Beethoven, Ludwig van; Berlin (Germany); Classical music; Columbia University; Concert Hall Society; Concert Halls; Controls; Discs; Electrical Engineering; Europe; Gotham Audio; Gotham Recording Company; Grundy, Al; International Recording Company; Lathes; MechanoMusic; Microphones; Microphones, Schoepps; Neumann; New York (N.Y.); Recorders, tape; Recording; Recording lathes, Neumann; Recording studios; Recording tape; Recording, disc; Recording, live; Research laboratories; Rie, Claude; Studios; Tape machine; Tapes; Telefunken; Timmer, Steve

Subjects: Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft (Germany); Beethoven, Ludwig van, 1770-1827.; Berlin (Germany); Columbia University.; Concert Hall Society; Electrical engineering.; History of science and technology; Lathes; Microphone; Music; Neumann; New York (N.Y.); Record labels.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Telefunken G.m.b.H.

GPS: New York, (N.Y.)
Map Coordinates: 40.7128, -74.0059
00:49:17 - Stereophonic sound recording

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Partial Transcript: And, uh, so, you know, being there I had learned about all of the the disc recording stuff.

Segment Synopsis: Grundy discusses stereophonic sound recording. He talks about hearing stereo for the first time from a Teldec representative and, later, hearing stereo at an Audio Engineering Society (AES) convention. He also talks about how he built the first stereo cutting system in New York (N.Y.) in 1958.

Keywords: Ampex; Ampex Electric Corporation; Ampex corporation; Audio Engineering Society (AES); Audio Fidelity; Cartridges; Disc systems; Disc systems, stereo; Electro-Voice; Frey, Sid; Grundy, Al; High fidelity; Los Angeles Audio Fair; Manufacturers, pick-ups; Monaural; Neumann; Philips; Pickering; Recorders, tape; Recording tape; Recording, disc; Recording, disc, stereo; Recording, mono; Recording, monoaural; Recording, stereo; Snyder, Ross; Stereo; Stereophonic; Tape; Tape machine; Teldec (Telefunken-Decca Schallplatten GmbH); Teledec; Westrex

Subjects: Ampex Corporation; Audio Engineering Society; Audio equipment industry; Frey, Sidney; History of science and technology; Music; Neumann; Record labels.; Snyder, Ross; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Stereophonic sound systems.; Westrex (Firm)

00:54:53 - Concert Hall Society

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Partial Transcript: But, uh, I, I know, but it's one of those stories that, uh, you know, I think of it being kind of tangential and then I come across a point at which I need to talk about it.

Segment Synopsis: Grundy discusses working under the Concert Hall Society recording label, which had a presence in Geneva, Switzerland. He also talks about mechanical engineer Claude Rie, who later worked for Cadence Records.

Keywords: Bleyer, Archie; Cadence Records; Concert Hall; Concert Hall Society; Consultants; Cutting systems; Editing; Equipment; Europe; France; Geneva; Geneva (Switzerland); Germany; Grundy, Al; International Recording; Italy; Lathes; Ludwig, Bob; Mastering houses; Mechanical engineers; Mixing; Mixing studios; New York (N.Y.); Recording companies; Recording lathes; Recording studios; Recording tape; Records, kinds of: lacquer masters; Rie, Claude; Sterling; Sterling Sound; Studios; Switzerland; Tapes

Subjects: Bleyer, Archie; Concert Hall Society; France; Geneva (Switzerland).; Germany; History of science and technology; Italy; Ludwig, Bob; Music; New York (N.Y.); Record labels.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Sterling (Sound recording label)

GPS: Geneva (Switzerland)
Map Coordinates: 46.2, 6.15
01:00:27 - Post-recording

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Partial Transcript: They called them mastering houses, huh?

Segment Synopsis: Grundy discusses techniques utilized in mastering records and the evolution of mastering houses, where post-recording improvements were done. He then talks about the growing importance of mixing and mastering in the recording business. He also talks about reference recordings.

Keywords: Audio engineering; Audio recording; Automation; Bands; Channels; Copies; Diameter equalization; Diameters; Discs; Distortion; Equalization; Faders; Groove speed; Grooves; Grundman, Bernard; Grundman, Bernie; Grundy, Al; Ludwig, Bob; Mastering; Mixing; Multi-tracking; Overdub; Overdubbing; Phasers; Recording studios; Recording tape; Records, kinds of: lacquer masters; References; Reverberation; Rie, Claude; Signal processing; Sound recording; Sterling Sound; Studios; Tapes; Tracks; Vocalists (singers)

Subjects: Audio equipment industry; Grundman, Bernie; History of science and technology; Ludwig, Bob; Music; Record labels.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Sterling (Sound recording label)

01:18:16 - MCI (Music Center Incorporated)

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Partial Transcript: You know, I, as we talk here, I think, you know, there's so many other aspects to all of this.

Segment Synopsis: Grundy discusses the enormous influence of MCI (Music Center Incorporated), makers of recording consoles. Grundy also talks about the recording studios of RCA Victor and Columbia Records.

Keywords: Audio Engineering Society (AES); Audio techniques; Columbia Records; Columbia Records, Inc.; Consoles (mixing); Equalizers; Equalizers, Pultec; Fort Lauderdale (Fla.); Grundy, Al; Harned, Grover "Jeep"; Liederkranz Hall; Los Angeles (Calif.); MCI (Music Center Incorporated); Pultec; RCA Victor; Radio; Recorders, tape; Recording studios; Recording studios, independent; Scully; Scully, Larry; Tape machine; Transcription; Transcription, radio; Victor Records

Subjects: Audio Engineering Society; Audio equipment industry; Columbia Records, Inc.; Fort Lauderdale (Fla.); History of science and technology; Los Angeles (Calif.); Music; Radio; Record labels.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History

GPS: Los Angeles (Calif.)
Map Coordinates: 34.05, -118.25
01:25:33 - Audio engineering schools / Institute of Audio Research

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Partial Transcript: When did you start--when did you go from, you know, from working for, you know, this recording company to starting a school?

Segment Synopsis: Grundy discusses institutes for audio engineering training, such as his own Institute of Audio Research. They also talk briefly about the Tremaine School in Hollywood (Calif.). Grundy discusses the locations of the school and the curriculum and talks about the students who went to the school.

Keywords: Air Force; Alignment; Alignment, machine; Ambassador Hotel; Audio Cyclopedia (Book); Audio Engineering Society (AES); Audio Engineering Society Magazine; Audio engineering; Barbizon Plaza; Barbizon Plaza Hotel; Berklee School of Music; Bleyer, Archie; Cadence Records; Cadman Records; California; Central Park; Central Park South; Chase, Cornelius "Chevy"; Classes; Columbia Records; Columbia Records, Inc.; Computers; Concert Hall Society; Consoles (mixing); Credentials; Curriculum; Decibels; Demonstrations; Diehl, Irv; Education; Education commissioners; Equipment; Film recording; First Family, the (Album); Five Towns College; Florida; Fraboni, Rob; Franchises; Full Sail; Handbook; Holiday Inn; Hollywood (Calif.); Hormel, George "Geordie"; Institute of Audio Research; Keys, Larry; Licenses; Licensing; Lookout Mountain; Lookout Mountain (Ga.); Mathematics; Miami (Fla.); Mixers; Music; Nashville (Tenn.); New York (N.Y.); New York University; Physics; Plunkett, Don; Plunkett, Donald; Pohlman, Ken; Porter, Bill; Porter, William; RCA Institutes; RCA Records; Record cutting; Recording; Recording lathes; Recording studios; Recording studios, independent; Records, kinds of: stereo; Records, kinds of: stereophonic; Research, acoustical; Rie, Claude; Schools; Semesters; Sound engineering; Stereo; Students; Studio technology and practice; Studio theory and practice; Techniques; Training; Tremaine; Tremaine School; Tremaine, Howard; Tuition; United States Air Force; University of Miami; Vanguard; Vanguard Records; Vilcher, Edgar; Village Recorder, the; Vitaphones; Warner Brothers Records; Warren, John; Wellington Hotel; db Magazine

Subjects: Ambassador Hotel; Audio Engineering Society; Bleyer, Archie; California; Central Park (New York, N.Y.); Chase, Chevy; Columbia Records, Inc.; Computers.; Concert Hall Society; Decibel; Fraboni, Rob; History of science and technology; Holiday Inns, Inc.; Hollywood (Calif.); Hormel, Geordie; Keys, Larry; Lookout Mountain (Appalachian Mountains); Lookout Mountain (Ga.); Mathematics.; Miami (Fla.); Music; Music.; Nashville (Tenn.); New York (N.Y.); New York University.; Physics.; Porter, Bill; RCA Records; Record labels.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Stereophonic sound systems.; United States. Air Force.; University of California, Berkeley.; University of Miami; Vitaphone; Vitaphone Corp.; Warner Brother's Company; Warren, John

GPS: New York (N.Y.)
Map Coordinates: 40.7127, -74.0059
02:06:11 - The Sapphire Club

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Partial Transcript: Well, tell me quickly, then, um, about The Sapphire Club. When you got involved in that.

Segment Synopsis: Grundy discusses The Sapphire Club, a social club for individuals in the audio recording industry. He also talks about how the club declined in popularity after the advent of multi-tracking. Grundy also names members of the organization, such as Dick Marcucci and Wally Rose.

Keywords: Audio engineering; Bachman, Bill; Bachman, William; Capps; Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS); Columbia Records; Columbia Records, Inc; Discs; Florida; Grundy, Al; Liebler, Vin; Liebler, Vincent; Long Island (N.Y.); Marcucci, Dick; New York (N.Y.); Olmstead Sound; Olmstead, Dick; Presto; Pulley, Al; RCA Victor; Recorders, tape; Recording business; Recording lathes, Presto; Recording lathes, Scully; Recording tape; Recording, tape; Records, kinds of: Transco blanks; Records, kinds of: blanks; Records, kinds of: shellac; Resources; Rose, Wally; Sapphire Club; Sapphire group; Social clubs; Sound engineering; Stylus; Tape machines; Tapes; Transco; Victor Records; World War II

Subjects: Bachman, William S.; Columbia Broadcasting System, inc.; Columbia Records, Inc.; History of science and technology; Long Island (N.Y.); Music; New York (N.Y.); Olmstead, Richard; Record labels.; Rose, Wally; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Stylus; Transco Companies Inc.

GPS: New York (N.Y.)
Map Coordinates: 40.7128, -74.0059