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00:00:12 - Introduction

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Partial Transcript: Hello?

Segment Synopsis: Kaplan talks about his age in 1973 when his album "Confessions of a Male Chauvinist Pig" was released. He talks about the impact of changing technology and performance on the unionized music recording business model. He says racial and gender relations were easier in music studios than elsewhere in society. He talks about the early years of male domination in the music recording business during the 1960s and 1970s, and his start in the business after his military service.

Keywords: A&R Recording Studios; Germano, Edward; Hit Factory, the; Kellgren, Gary; Montise, Louann; Musicians union; Ramone, Phil; Record Plant, the; Studio musicians

Subjects: History of science and technology; Music; Race relations.; Record labels.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History

00:10:15 - Kaplan's early music career

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Partial Transcript: Um, so tell--why don't you tell me about when your early, um, experiences as a session player beginning in 1960. Do you remember your first session?

Segment Synopsis: Kaplan talks about his early music career with high school friend Jack Keller before his army service. He talks about his interests in jazz and rock and roll, and making a demonstration record. He talks about several television show theme songs in which he performed.

Keywords: Bewitched; Demonstration records; Fort Dix (N.J.); Fort Monroe (Va.); Francis, Connie; Gidget; Gorgoni, Al; Greenfield, Howie; Keller, Jack; Kirschner, Don; Maxim, Arnold; NCO clubs; Sedaka, Neil; Sherman, Joe; The Presidio

Subjects: History of science and technology; Keller, Jack (Composer); Music; Presley, Elvis, 1935-1977.; Record labels.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History

00:20:00 - Old style musicians

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Partial Transcript: And he was--I mean, the, these musicians that were from a different generation, and different kind of training, did they--did, did you find any that said " Hey, I just don't want to play on that."

Segment Synopsis: Kaplan talks about the transition in the music recording business from an older generation that specialized in jazz to a new, younger generation of rock and roll studio musicians.

Keywords: Associated Recordings; Brecker, Michael; Brill Building; Charles, Dick; Daniels, Eddie; Demonstration records; Eastman School of Music; Phillips, Anne

Subjects: Eastman School of Music.; History of science and technology; Keller, Jack (Composer); Magnetic tapes.; Music; Record labels.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History

00:25:49 - Kaplan's early recording sessions

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Partial Transcript: Um, so you started with those demo studios and then what was your--do you remember your first session that was a real recording session for a master?

Segment Synopsis: Kaplan talks about his introduction into booking recording sessions as a producer. He talks about musicians, engineers, and other music professionals with whom he worked. He talks about various studios and recording companies where he worked. He describes working with music union delegates and evading union recording rules.

Keywords: A&R Studios; Arthur, Brooks; Columbia Studios; Lorber, Alan; Mann, Barry; Mirror Sound; RCA; Ryan's Hope; Sedaka, Neil

Subjects: Columbia Records, Inc.; Francis, Connie; History of science and technology; Music; Musicians--United States.; Record labels.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Streisand, Barbra.

00:33:36 - A new era in the recording business

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Partial Transcript: Did you s--I mean did that happen, you're saying like around the--in the nineteen se-- late 1970s--

Segment Synopsis: Kaplan says the high point of the recording business was in the 1960s and began to wane in the 1970s as the music and recording technology began to change.

Keywords: Baez, Joan; Brill Building; Columbia Studio; The David Letterman Show; Vanguard Studio; Warham, John; Zerah, Jeff

Subjects: Columbia Records, Inc.; History of science and technology; Music; Record labels.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Vanguard Records

00:37:08 - Landmark changes in the recording business

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Partial Transcript: How did these sessions change during this period of time when it was so--I mean you said that the technology, you know, kept growing...

Segment Synopsis: Kaplan talks about the details of sound engineering and the technological changes over time. He cites specific examples of developments such as "sound on sound" recording techniques, and he talks about particular recording sessions such as the recording of "Locomotion" by Little Eva and Carole King.

Keywords: Associated Recording Studios; Butler, Artie; Charles, Dick; Cookies, the; Demonstration recording; Goldner, George; Little Eva; Master recording; One-track recording tapes; Red Bird label; Sound engineering

Subjects: History of science and technology; King, Carole, 1942-; Music; Record labels.; Sound engineers; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History

00:43:31 - Changes in music technology

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Partial Transcript: So ho--can you, uh, think of ways in which, um, the way the technology was changing began to affect the kind of music people were writing and the way people were playing?

Segment Synopsis: Kaplan talks about the changes in technology and financing in manufacturing musical recordings. He talks about the development of smaller, cheaper home-based studios.

Keywords: Biggie Smalls (Artist); Billboard charts; Germano, Eddie; Goldner, George; Hit Factory, the; Rolling Stones, the (Artist)

Subjects: Dylan, Bob, 1941-; History of science and technology; Madonna, 1958-; Music; Record labels.; Rolling Stones.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History

00:56:57 - Favorite studios and favorite professionals

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Partial Transcript: Um, I'm trying to think of some more specific questions about--

Segment Synopsis: Kaplan talks about the facilities, engineers, and producers at his favorite recording studios. He talks about his working relationships and attributes easy relations to being prepared with a plan and personal consideration.

Keywords: Arthur, Brooks; Barry, Jeff; Crewe, Bob; Madara, John; White, David; You Don't Own Me (Song)

Subjects: Arthur, Brooks; Goffin, Gerry; History of science and technology; Ian, Janis; King, Carole, 1942-; Music; Ramone, Phil; Record labels.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History

01:02:09 - New York studios

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Partial Transcript: How about specific studios?

Segment Synopsis: Kaplan describes New York recording studios as the best in meeting the needs of musical artists. He says the quality of studios was due to the people who managed them.

Keywords: A&R Recording Studios; Addey, Malcom; Avatar Studios; Bell Sound Studios; Berns, Bert; Brennan, Tory; Germano, Eddie; Hit Factory, the; Mimms, Garnet; Mirror Sound Studios; Power Station Studio; Ragovoy,Jerry; Record Plant, the; Smith, Eddie; Stoddard, Bill; Teague, Dave; Yackus, Shelly

Subjects: Arthur, Brooks; History of science and technology; Music; Ramone, Phil; Record labels.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History

01:06:53 - Central studios become home studios

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Partial Transcript: Uh, some of those--so many of those studios have just gone because of what you described earlier: the home recording that people--

Segment Synopsis: Kaplan talks about the shift from the traditional central recording studios to smaller home-based recording studios. He talks about the older studios being converted into condominiums. He says this transition process is due to developments in technology and the unionized business model. He also says traditionally-minded sound engineers were not able to meet the needs of musicians to develop a harder sound.

Keywords: Hit Factory, the; Paisley Park; Phillips, Sam; Prince (Artist); RCA Studios; Stacks Studio; WDOK (Radio station)

Subjects: History of science and technology; Music; RCA Records; Record labels.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History

01:14:02 - Decline of music recording

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Partial Transcript: Oh, gosh, I can't think of what else I specifically want to ask you.

Segment Synopsis: Kaplan talks about the diminishing music recording industry in New York beginning in the 1980s. He says the decline was due in part to the transition to home recording studios. He discusses the increasing competition in recording advertising jingles as undermining the economics of music recording. He also says the improved digital technology eclipses the need for acoustical studios. Kaplan says that there are music recording studios in abroad in places like Minsk, Russia which increases the competition among suppliers.

Keywords: Acoustic design; Advertising agencies; Commercial jingles; Dorne, Joel; Pepsi Cola

Subjects: History of science and technology; Music; Record labels.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History

01:22:53 - Major personalities in the recording business

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Partial Transcript: I did take a, a brief look at Joel Dorn's papers.

Segment Synopsis: Kaplan talks about several of the notable personalities in the music recording business in the 1960s through the 1980s.

Keywords: Avakian, George; Davis,Clive; Goodman, Benny; Holiday,Billie; Kirschner, Al; Levy, Morris; My Fair Lady; Springsteen, Bruce; Zack, Jim

Subjects: Decca Records (Firm); Hammond, John, 1910-1987.; History of science and technology; Miller, Mitch.; Music; Record labels.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Springsteen, Bruce.

01:29:13 - The declining session music business

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Partial Transcript: What other studios are still in New York? That are, that are--

Segment Synopsis: Kaplan talks about working on Liza Minelli's last album as his last work at a recording session. He says he wouldn't know any session musicians anymore.

Keywords: Bar mitzvahs; Musicians union; Pensions; Power Station Studios; Roseland Ballroom Building; Weddings

Subjects: Arthur, Brooks; Hamlisch, Marvin.; History of science and technology; Minnelli, Liza; Music; Record labels.; Sound recording industry; Sound recording industry--History; Sound recordings; Sound--Recording and reproducing; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History