Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History

Interview with Wajahat Hussain, June 18, 2005

Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, University of Kentucky Libraries
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00:00:00 - Working with General Douglas David Gracey

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Partial Transcript: This is Amber Abbas with General Wajahat Hussain at his home in Lahore on Saturday, June eighteenth.

Segment Synopsis: Hussain talks about how he came to work for General Douglas Gracey, as well as some general background about the General, such as his relationship with Mahomed Ali Jinnah. He then describes his time working for Gracey.

Keywords: Babar, Bashir Ullah; Command and Staff College; Dixon, Sir Owen; General headquarters; Gracey, Douglas David; Indian Army; Indian Military Academy (IMA); Indo-China; Jinnah, Mahomed Ali; Karachi (India); Karachi Corps; Kashmir (India); Mountbatten, Louis; Muslim refugees; Nimitz, Chester William; Pakistan Army; Pakistan Army 19th Lancers; Pakistan Military Academy (PMA); Partition; Peshawar (Pakistan); Punjab Boundary Force; Rawalpindi (Pakistan); Rees, T.W.; Royal Military Academy Sandhurst (RMAS); Wilson, Jim; World War II

Subjects: Command and Staff College (Quetta, Pakistan); Dixon, Owen, Sir, 1886-1972; Gracey, Douglas David, 1894-1964.; India--History--Partition, 1947; India--History.; Indian Military Academy; Jinnah, Mahomed Ali, 1876-1948.; Karachi (Pakistan); Kashmir.; Mountbatten of Burma, Louis Mountbatten, Earl, 1900-1979.; Nimitz, Chester W. (Chester William), 1885-1966.; Pakistan--History; Pakistan. Army.; Pakistan. Army. General Headquarters.; Partition; Peshawar (Pakistan); Rawalpindi (Pakistan); Rees, T. W.; Refugees; Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst; Wilson, Jim; World War, 1939-1945

GPS: Peshawar (Pakistan)
Map Coordinates: 34.016667, 71.583333
00:16:30 - Establishment of Pakistan

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Partial Transcript: Uh, at the same time I must mention that at that time things were very simple and very basic.

Segment Synopsis: Hussain talks about the austerity that followed the establishment of Pakistan. He then talks about the administrative tasks facing General Gracey in the early days of the nation of Pakistan.

Keywords: Armed forces; Austerity; Babar, Bashir Ullah; Bangladesh; East Pakistan; Gracey, Douglas David; Helicopter crashes; Indian Military Academy (IMA); Jinnah, Mahomed Ali; Karachi (Pakistan); Kashmir (India); Khan, Liaquat Ali; Money; Pakistan; Pakistan Army; Rawalpindi (Pakistan); Sixth armoured division; World War II

Subjects: Armed forces; Bangladesh; Gracey, Douglas David, 1894-1964.; India--History--Partition, 1947; India--History.; Indian Military Academy; Jinnah, Mahomed Ali, 1876-1948.; Karachi (Pakistan); Khan, Liaquat Ali, 1895-1951.; Pakistan--Military relations--India.; Pakistan. Army.; Pakistan. Army. 6 Armoured Division;  Pakistan--History

GPS: Karachi (Pakistan)
Map Coordinates: 24.86, 67.01
00:25:55 - Responsibilities under General Douglas Gracey

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Partial Transcript: Um, what kind of professional responsibilities did you have on a daily basis when you were with General Gracey?

Segment Synopsis: Hussain talks about his duties as an assistant to General Douglas Gracey, including welcoming visitors, assuring the security of the general’s home, doing administrative tasks, and arranging social functions for General and Lady Gracey. He then talks about General Gracey’s first priorities as commander of the Pakistan Army.

Keywords: Administration; Auchinleck, Claude John Eyre; General Headquarters; Generals; Gracey, Douglas David; Indian Army; Indo-Pakistan Defense Committee; Karachi (Pakistan); Kashmir (India); Lady Gracey; Mountbatten, Louis; Ordinance depots; Pakistan; Pakistan Army; Partition; Rawalpindi (Pakistan); Refugees; Security; Tanks, Churchill; Telephones; Visitors

Subjects: Auchinleck, Claude John Eyre, 1884-1981; Generals; Gracey, Douglas David, 1894-1964.; India--History--Partition, 1947; India. Army.; Karachi (Pakistan); Kashmir.; Mountbatten of Burma, Louis Mountbatten, Earl, 1900-1979.; Pakistan; Pakistan--History; Pakistan--Military relations--India.; Pakistan. Army.; Pakistan. Army. General Headquarters.; Partition; Rawalpindi (Pakistan); Refugees; Tanks; Telephone.

GPS: Rawalpindi (Pakistan)
Map Coordinates: 33.6, 73.033333
00:38:05 - Establishing the Pakistan Army

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Partial Transcript: Going to your question about the organization of raising the Pakistan army, uh, for instance, uh, Indians played dirty at every step, as far as the, uh, division of assets was concerned.

Segment Synopsis: Hussain discusses the difficulties that were faced by dividing the Indian Army after the establishment of Pakistan, such as rewriting training pamphlets. He then talks about General Douglas Gracey’s vision for the Pakistan Army. Hussain then talks about the effects of Mahomed Ali Jinnah’s death on the Pakistan Army.

Keywords: Babar, Bashir Ullah; Boyd, Gerald F.; British Indian Army; Director general of military training; General Headquarters; Gracey, Douglas Gracey; Hindi Gerald; Indian Army; Jinnah, Mahomed Ali; Manuscripts; Pakistan Army; Pamphlets; Training; World War II

Subjects: British--India--History.; Gracey, Douglas David, 1894-1964.; India--History.; India. Army.; Jinnah, Mahomed Ali, 1876-1948.; Manuscripts; Pakistan--History; Pakistan--Military relations--India.; Pakistan. Army.; Pakistan. Army. General Headquarters.; Pamphlets; Training; World War, 1939-1945

00:52:05 - Difficulties establishing the Pakistan Army

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Partial Transcript: In regards to the funding of the army, there, there's an argument that says after the Kashmir conflict started, there was no way that the Indians would release any more assets. No more money, no more military assets.

Segment Synopsis: Hussain talks about Pakistan’s decision to pursue Kashmir (India), as opposed to pursuing military resources from India. He then talks about the shortage of senior officers to fulfill positions in the newly formed Pakistan Army. He also talks about Brigadier General Sher Khan and Major General Muhammed Iftikhar Khan, both of whom died in a plane crash in 1949. He then talks about General Ayub Khan, who had political ambitions.

Keywords: British Army; Gandhi, Mohandas; General Headquarters; Generals; Gracey, Douglas David; Imperial Defense College; Indian Army; Indian National Army (INA); Kashmir (India); Khan, Ayub; Khan, Muhammed Iftikhar; Khan, Naseer Ali; Khan, Sher; Lahore Division; Montgomery, Bernard Law; Muslims; Pakistan Army; United Nations

Subjects: Gandhi, Mahatma, 1869-1948.; Generals; India--History--Partition, 1947; India--History.; India. Army.; Kashmir; Khan, Ayub, 1969-; Khan, Naseer Ali; Khan, Sher; Montgomery, Bernard; Muslims; Pakistan--History; Pakistan. Army.; Pakistan. Army. General Headquarters.; United Nations

GPS: Kashmir (India)
Map Coordinates: 33.45, 76.24
01:05:12 - Gracey’s view of East Pakistan (Bangladesh)

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Partial Transcript: Uh, how did Gracey view East Pakistan?

Segment Synopsis: Hussain talks about General Douglas Gracey’s view of East Pakistan, which later became Bangladesh. He also talks about the developments made in East Pakistan.

Keywords: Bangladesh; Chittagong (Bangladesh); Comilla (Bangladesh); Communications; East Pakistan; Gracey, Douglas David; Roads

Subjects: Bangladesh--History.; Chittagong (Bangladesh); Comilla (Bangladesh); Communication.; Gracey, Douglas David, 1894-1964.; Pakistan--History; Roads.

GPS: Chittagong (Bangladesh)
Map Coordinates: 22.366667, 91.8
01:08:00 - Leaving the employment of General Douglas Gracey

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Partial Transcript: Let's, let's make it a short one today then.

Segment Synopsis: Hussain talks about leaving the employment of General Douglas Gracey and returning to regimental soldiering. He also talks briefly about the airplane crash that killed Major General Muhammed Iftikhar Khan.

Keywords: 19th Lancers; Assassination; Command and Staff College; Gracey, Douglas David; India; Karachi airport; Khan, Liaquat Ali; London (England); Nehru, Jawaharlal; Operation Curzon; Pakistan; Pakistan Airways; Pakistan Army; Plane crashes; Rawalpindi (Pakistan); Regiments; Royal Armoured Corps (RAC)

Subjects: Assassination; Command and Staff College (Quetta, Pakistan); Gracey, Douglas David, 1894-1964.; India.; Khan, Liaquat Ali, 1895-1951.; London (England); Nehru, Jawaharlal, 1889-1964.; Pakistan--History; Pakistan.; Pakistan. Army.; Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

GPS: Rawalpindi (Pakistan)
Map Coordinates: 33.6, 73.033333