Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History

Interview with Wajahat Hussain, June 21, 2005

Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, University of Kentucky Libraries
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00:00:00 - Conflict over Kashmir and Jammu (India)

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Partial Transcript: This is Monday, June twenty-first.

Segment Synopsis: Hussain discusses the conflict between Pakistan and India over the territory of Kashmir, including Mahomed Ali Jinnah’s involvement.

Keywords: Ceasefires; Gandhi, Mohandas; Governors; Hindus; Hyderabad (India); Jammu (India); Jinnah, Mahomed Ali; Kashmir (India); Moguls; Mountbatten, Louis; Muslims; Nagar (India); Nehru, Jawaharlal; Pakistan Army; Partition; Parumala (India); Rawalpindi (Pakistan); United Nations; Volunteers

Subjects: Gandhi, Mahatma, 1869-1948.; Governors; Hindus; Hyderabad (India); India--History--Partition, 1947; India--History.; Jammu (India : District); Jammu (India); Jinnah, Mahomed Ali, 1876-1948.; Kashmir.; Mogul Empire--History.; Mogul Empire.; Mountbatten of Burma, Louis Mountbatten, Earl, 1900-1979.; Muslims; Nehru, Jawaharlal, 1889-1964.; Pakistan--History; Pakistan--Military relations--India.; Pakistan. Army.; Partition; Rawalpindi (Pakistan); United Nations; Volunteers.

GPS: Kashmir (India)
Map Coordinates: 34.5, 76
00:14:12 - Importance of Kashmir (India)

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Partial Transcript: Why is Kashmir so important?

Segment Synopsis: Hussain gives his reasons for the importance of Kashmir (India), such as its abundant water resources and strategic importance. He also discusses the economic strain that Pakistan’s involvement in Kashmir (India) caused on the newly-formed country.

Keywords: Armed forces; China; Crops; Economics; Finances; India; Kashmir (India); Mountains; Pakistan; Pakistan. Army.; Water

Subjects: Armed Forces; China; Crops.; Economics; Finance; Kashmir.; Mountains; Pakistan--Military relations--India.; Pakistan. Army.; Pakistan.India; Water.

GPS: Kashmir (India)
Map Coordinates: 34.5, 76
00:20:39 - Failure to solve Kashmir (India) conflict via diplomatic means

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Partial Transcript: In nineteen forty-eight, do you think that there was a diplomatic solution that could have been reached?

Segment Synopsis: Hussain discusses why he feels it was not possible to solve the conflict over Kashmir (India) with diplomatic means. He then talks about the possibility of an independent Kashmir (India).

Keywords: Diplomacy; India; Indian Army; Kashmir (India); Lahore (Pakistan); Nagar (India); Pakistan; Pakistan Army; Peshawar (Pakistan); United Nations

Subjects: Diplomacy; India; India--History.; India. Army.; Kashmir.; Lahore (Pakistan); Pakistan; Pakistan--History; Pakistan--Military relations--India.; Pakistan. Army.; Peshawar (Pakistan); United Nations

GPS: Kashmir (India)
Map Coordinates: 34.5, 76
00:26:05 - Security of Pakistan

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Partial Transcript: I, in, uh--so the precedent for a lot of what has happened both in Kashmir and elsewhere was set in those very early days.

Segment Synopsis: Hussain talks about the importance of establishing internal and external security in newly-created Pakistan. He also discusses why he thinks many of Pakistan’s problems were caused by the overly-hasty partition of India, as well as why he feels that a united India was impossible.

Keywords: Communications; External security; Indian Empire; Internal security; Jinnah, Mahomed Ali; Kashmir (India); Mountbatten, Louis; Nehru, Jawaharlal; Pakistan; Partition of India; Refugees; Trade

Subjects: Communication; India--History--Partition, 1947; India--History.; Jinnah, Mahomed Ali, 1876-1948.; Kashmir.; Mountbatten of Burma, Louis Mountbatten, Earl, 1900-1979.; Nehru, Jawaharlal, 1889-1964.; Pakistan--History; Pakistan--Military relations--India.; Refugees; Security and conflict management

00:32:37 - Death of Mahomed Ali Jinnah in 1949 / Liaquat Ali Khan

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Partial Transcript: So now, we're in nineteen forty-eight and of course the most important thing, maybe that happened in nineteen forty-eight was the death of Jinnah.

Segment Synopsis: Hussain talks about the death of leader Mahomed Ali Jinnah from tuberculosis in 1949. He also talks about how the shock of the refugee crisis in Pakistan had negative effects on Jinnah’s health. Hussain then discusses the manner in which Liaquat Ali Khan managed to govern the newly-created state of Pakistan. Next, he talks about Pakistan’s reaction to Jinnah’s death, as well as his death as he was being transported via ambulance.

Keywords: Ambulances; Auchinleck, Claude John Eyre; Bangladesh; British officers; Cabinets; Delhi (India); Diplomatic relations; East Pakistan; Gracey, Douglas David; Indian National Congress; Industry; Jinnah, Fatima; Jinnah, Mahomed Ali; Karachi (Pakistan); Kennedy, John F.; Khan, Liaquat Ali; Lahore (Pakistan); Mountbatten, Louis; Mudie-Smith, Sir Robert Francis; Mussoorie (India); Pakistan; Pakistan Army; Pakistan movement; Peshawar (Pakistan); Quaid-e-Azam; Quetta (Pakistan); Refugee columns; Refugees; September 11 Terrorist Attacks, 2001.; Trade; Tuberculosis

Subjects: Ambulances.; Auchinleck, Claude John Eyre, 1884-1981; Bangladesh; Delhi (India); Diplomacy; Gracey, Douglas David, 1894-1964.; Indian National Congress; Jinnah, Fatima, 1894-1967.; Jinnah, Mahomed Ali, 1876-1948; Karachi (Pakistan); Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald), 1917-1963.; Khan, Liaquat Ali, 1895-1951.; Lahore (Pakistan); Mountbatten of Burma, Louis Mountbatten, Earl, 1900-1979.; Mudie-Smith, Richard, 1877-1916; Mussoorie (India); Pakistan movement.; Pakistan--History; Pakistan.; Pakistan. Army.; Peshawar (Pakistan); Quetta (Pakistan); Refugees.; September 11 Terrorist Attacks, 2001.; Tuberculosis.

GPS: Lahore (Pakistan)
Map Coordinates: 31.5546, 74.3572
00:48:50 - Liaquat Ali Khan / diplomatic relations with the United States and Russia

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Partial Transcript: Then tell me about Liaquat.

Segment Synopsis: Hussain talks about the unsolved assassination of prime minister Liaquat Ali Khan, which Hussain feels was a conspiracy. He then talks about Khan’s visit to the United States. He also talks about Pakistan’s diplomatic relations with the United States and Russia.

Keywords: Air crashes; Ambassadors; Assassinations; Babar, Bashir Ullah; Conspiracies; Delhi (India); Diplomatic relations; Hardy, James; India; Inquiries; Inspector general of police; Jinnah, Mahomed Ali; Karachi (Pakistan); Khan, Ayub; Khan, Liaquat Ali; Liaquat Garden; London (England); Moscow (Russia); Pakistan--History; Prime ministers; Rawalpindi (Pakistan); Russia; Shootings; Socialism; Truman, Harry S; United States of America

Subjects: Assassination; Conspiracy.; Delhi (India); Diplomacy; Hardy, James; Hardy, James D. (James Daniel), 1904-1985; Hardy, James D., 1918-; India; Jinnah, Mahomed Ali, 1876-1948.; Karachi (Pakistan); Khan, Ayub, 1969-; Khan, Liaquat Ali, 1895-1951.; London (England); Moscow (Russia); Pakistan--History; Rawalpindi (Pakistan); Russia; Socialism; Truman, Harry S., 1884-1972.; United States

GPS: Karachi (Pakistan)
Map Coordinates: 24.86, 67.01
00:59:35 - Effects of the deaths of Mohamed Ali Jinnah and Liaquat Ali Khan

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Partial Transcript: How did the army institution react to the death of Jinnah and maybe more importantly the death of Liaquat?

Segment Synopsis: Hussain talks about the effects caused by the deaths of Mohamed Ali Jinnah and Liaquat Ali Khan, such as a vacuum of leadership, particularly in the armed forces.

Keywords: Constitutions; Deaths; Jinnah, Mahomed Ali; Khan, Liaquat Ali; Leaders; Leadership; Pakistan Army; Pakistan--History

Subjects: Constitution; Death.; Jinnah, Mahomed Ali, 1876-1948.; Khan, Liaquat Ali, 1895-1951.; Leaders; Leadership; Pakistan--History

01:01:44 - Relationship between civil government and military

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Partial Transcript: What was the relationship like, in those early years, uh, between the sort of army institution or the military institution and the sort of civil-political institution of government? How, how did those two institutions work in relation to one another?

Segment Synopsis: Hussain discusses the relationship between the civil bureaucracy of Pakistan and the Pakistani Armed Forces.

Keywords: Armed forces; Communications; Defense; Floods; Kashmir (India); Pakistan; Pakistan Army; Pakistan--History; Punjab (Pakistan); Quetta (Pakistan); Refugees; Security; United Provinces (India)

Subjects: Armed forces; Communication; Floods; Kashmir.; Pakistan--History; Pakistan. Army.; Punjab (Pakistan); Quetta (Pakistan); Refugees

GPS: Quetta (Pakistan)
Map Coordinates: 30.183333, 67
01:05:56 - Pakistan in the 1950s and 1960s

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Partial Transcript: What, what were the next--(Hussain coughs)--major events that come to mind in this period, for you?

Segment Synopsis: Hussain talks about the escalating tension that occurred between Pakistan and India in the 1950s, which were primarily over water resources. He then talks about the First Martial Law, as well as the Indo-Pakistan War of 1965. Hussain then briefly talks about the Agartala Conspiracy Case, which implicated Sheikh Mujib and 35 others in conspiring with India against the stability of Pakistan, as well as a story about General Akbar Khan, who was also implicated in the case.

Keywords: Agartala Conspiracy Case; Argatala Conspiracy Case; Armoured Corps Centre and School; Borders; Burma; Command and Staff College; Families, political; First Martial Law; Flap One; Flap Two; Gopal, Bissano Ram; Gracey, Douglas David; India; India Water Treaty; Indian Army; Indo-Pakistan War of 1965; Jinnah, Mahomed Ali; Kashmir (India); Khan, Liaquat Ali; Khan, Mohammed Akbar; London (England); Nasum, Begum; Negotiations; Nowshera (Pakistan); Pakistan; Pakistan--History; Pindi Club; Prime ministers; Quetta (Pakistan); Rawalpindi (Pakistan); Royal Armoured Corps (RAC); Tribal incursions; United Nations; Water; Wives

Subjects: Burma; Command and Staff College (Quetta, Pakistan); Conspiracy; Gracey, Douglas David, 1894-1964.; India; India. Army.; Jinnah, Mahomed Ali, 1876-1948.; Kashmir; Khan, Liaquat Ali, 1895-1951.; London (England); Martial Law; Negotiation; Nowshera (Pakistan); Pakistan--History; Pakistan--Military relations--India.; Pakistan.; Pakistan. Army.; Prime ministers; Quetta (Pakistan); Rawalpindi (Pakistan); United Nations; Water.; Wives

GPS: Quetta (Pakistan)
Map Coordinates: 30.183333, 67
01:25:39 - Rawalpindi Conspiracy

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Partial Transcript: When I was in Kohat, uh, educant, uh, during the weekends, uh, I used to come to Pindi, as I said, and stay with the chief or, uh, some, one of the messes and go back and that the uh, checkposts on the border between of Frontier and Punjab, they used to make entries of all the vehicles coming and going.

Segment Synopsis: Hussain discusses the Rawalpindi Conspiracy, an attempted Soviet-backed coup d'état against the government of Liaquat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan, in 1951.

Keywords: Coup d'états; Khan, Akbar; Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan); Kohat (Pakistan); North-West Frontier Province (NWFP); Rawalpindi (Pakistan); Rawalpindi Conspiracy

Subjects: Conspiracy; Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan); Pakistan--History; Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

GPS: Rawalpindi (Pakistan)
Map Coordinates: 33.6, 73.033333