Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History

Interview with Wajahat Hussain, July 8, 2005

Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, University of Kentucky Libraries
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00:00:00 - Relations between East and West Pakistan

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Partial Transcript: Today is Friday, July eighth.

Segment Synopsis: Hussain talks about the roots of the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971, such as previous conflicts and government policies towards East Pakistan. He then talks about the Agartala Conspiracy Case, in which 35 political personalities were charged with conspiring with India to threaten the stability of Pakistan. Hussain also talks about the issues and liabilities posed by East Pakistan, which later became the nation of Bangladesh.

Keywords: Agartala Conspiracy Case; Bangladesh; Bengalis; Chittagong (Bangladesh); Chittagong Harbor (Bangladesh); Command and Staff College; Dhaka (Bangladesh); East Pakistan; East Pakistan militia; First Martial Law; Gandhi, Indira; Indo-Pakistan War of 1965; Indo-Pakistan War of 1971; Khan, Ayub; Mutinies; Pakistan; Rahman, Sheikh Mujibur; Six point demands

Subjects: Bangladesh; Bangladesh--History.; Chittagong (Bangladesh); Command and Staff College (Quetta, Pakistan); Conspiracies.; Dhaka (Bangladesh); Gandhi, Indira, 1917-1984.; Khan, Ayub, 1969-; Martial law.; Mutiny; Pakistan; Pakistan--History; Rahman, Mujibur

GPS: Chittagong (Bangladesh)
Map Coordinates: 22.366667, 91.8
00:20:58 - Agartala Conspiracy Case

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Partial Transcript: Did the declaration of marital law have any effect on their feelings about West Pakistan, do you think?

Segment Synopsis: Hussain talks about the Agartala Conspiracy Case, in which 35 political personalities were charged with conspiring with India to threaten the stability of Pakistan.

Keywords: Agartala Conspiracy Case; Bangladesh; Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali; East Pakistan; First Martial Law; Khān, Yaḥyá Aḥmad; Pakistan; Prime ministers; Rahman, Sheikh Mujibur; West Pakistan

Subjects: Bangladesh; Bangladesh--History.; Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali, 1928-1979.; Conspiracy; India--History.; Khān, Yaḥyá Aḥmad, 1975-; Martial law; Pakistan; Pakistan--History; Pakistan--Military relations--India.; Prime ministers.; Rahman, Mujibur

00:25:38 - East and West Pakistan

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Partial Transcript: Why do you think it--I mean, the concept of a democracy would say that the majority party should have the prime minister.

Segment Synopsis: Hussain talks about the method in which the prime minister was chosen for East and West Pakistan. He then talks about the ways in which parity was guaranteed between East and West Pakistan. Hussain also talks about where the blame lies for poor relations between East and West Pakistan. He then talks about General Douglas Gracey’s opinion of East Pakistan (later Bangladesh).

Keywords: Armed forces; Bangladesh; Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali; Dhaka (Bangladesh); East Pakistan; General headquarters; Gracey, Douglas David; Indian National Congress; Indian armed forces; Indo-Pakistan War of 1971; Jinnah, Mohamed Ali; Karachi (Pakistan); Khan, Ayub; Khān, Yaḥyá Aḥmad; Minorities; Muslims; National Defence University (NDU); Pakistan Army; Parity; Prime ministers; Rahman, Sheikh Mujibur; West Pakistan; World War II

Subjects: Armed forces; Bangladesh; Bangladesh--History.; Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali, 1928-1979.; Dhaka (Bangladesh); Gracey, Douglas David, 1894-1964.; India. Army.; Indian National Congress; Jinnah, Mahomed Ali, 1876-1948.; Karachi (Pakistan); Khan, Ayub, 1969-; Khān, Yaḥyá Aḥmad, 1975-; Minorities; Muslims; National Defence University (Pakistan); Pakistan; Pakistan--History; Pakistan--Military relations--India.; Pakistan. Army.; Pakistan. Army. General Headquarters; Prime ministers; Rahman, Mujibur; World War, 1939-1945

GPS: Dhaka (Bangladesh)
Map Coordinates: 23.7, 90.366667
00:44:26 - Indo-Pakistan War of 1971

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Partial Transcript: But at the time of, uh, the seventy-one war, I was, uh, doing the National Defence College.

Segment Synopsis: Hussain discusses his involvement in the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971, which involved asking for material support from Iran and Turkey.

Keywords: Ankara (Turkey); Armored divisions; General headquarters; India; Indian armed forces; Indo-Pakistan War of 1971; Iran; Kabul (Afghanistan); National Defence University (NDU); Pahlavi, Mohammad Rezā; Turkey

Subjects: Ankara (Turkey); Bangladesh--History.; India; India--History.; India. Army.; Iran; Kabul (Afghanistan); Kings and rulers.; National Defence University (Pakistan); Pakistan--History; Pakistan--Military relations--India.; Pakistan. Army.; Pakistan. Army. General Headquarters; Turkey

GPS: Ankara (Turkey)
Map Coordinates: 39.933333, 32.866667
00:59:12 - Foreign relations

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Partial Transcript: Do you have any sense of how the Turks viewed Pakistan?

Segment Synopsis: Hussain talks about the opinion of various countries, such as China, Russia, and the United States, towards Pakistan.

Keywords: Ataturk, Kemal; Ayatollahs; Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali; China; Command and Staff College; Gandhi, Indira; Haig, Douglas; Iran; Jinnah, Mahomed Ali; Khān, Yaḥyá Aḥmad; Nixon, Richard; Rawalpindi (Pakistan); Russia; Turkey; United Nations Security Council; United States of America

Subjects: Atatürk, Kemal, 1881-1938.; Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali, 1928-1979.; China; Gandhi, Indira, 1917-1984.; Haig, Douglas Haig, Earl, 1861-1928.; Iran; Jinnah, Mahomed Ali, 1876-1948.; Khān, Yaḥyá Aḥmad, 1975-; Nixon, Richard; Nixon, Richard M. (Richard Milhous), 1913-1994.; Pakistan--History; Rawalpindi (Pakistan); Russia; Turkey; United Nations; United Nations. Security Council.

GPS: Rawalpindi (Pakistan)
Map Coordinates: 33.6, 73.033333
01:07:29 - Muhammed Zia-ul-Haq and 1977 military coup

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Partial Transcript: What would you say, after seventy-one, was the next big event?

Segment Synopsis: Hussain discusses the military takeover of Pakistan by General Muhammed Zia-ul-Haq and subsequent execution of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in 1979. He also talks about the Greek ambassador’s reaction to the coup, as well as the difficulties that the military coup caused his career.

Keywords: Army chiefs; Ayatollahs; Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali; Command and Staff College; Executions; General Headquarters; Greece; Hangings; Inter-Services Intelligence; Khān, Yaḥyá Aḥmad; Libya; Martial law; Military coups; Pakistan; Pakistan Army; Prime ministers; Promotions; Quetta (Pakistan); Sixth armoured division; Zia-ul-Haq, Muhammed

Subjects: Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali, 1928-1979.; Greece; Hanging.; Khān, Yaḥyá Aḥmad, 1975-; Libya; Martial law; Pakistan; Pakistan--History; Pakistan. Army.; Pakistan. Army. 6 Armoured Division; Pakistan. Army. General Headquarters; Prime ministers; Promotions.; Quetta (Pakistan); Zia-ul-Haq, Mohammad.

GPS: Quetta (Pakistan)
Map Coordinates: 30.183333, 67
01:29:34 - Yom Kippur War of 1973

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Partial Transcript: So was he just terribly threatened by you?

Segment Synopsis: Hussain talks about his study of the 1973 Yom Kippur War between Israel and various Arab states, which improved his standing in the army. He then talks about his efforts to have Pakistan reinstated to the Commonwealth of Nations. Hussain also briefly talks about the assassination of Muhammed Zia-ul-Haq, which he feels may have been instigated by the armed forces of the United States.

Keywords: Arab-Israeli War; Assassinations; Australia; Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali; Cairo (Egypt); Command Staff College; Commonwealth of Nations; Damascus (Syria); General headquarters; Israel; Israeli War; Lahore (Pakistan); Lebanon; Libya; Pakistan Army; Quetta (Pakistan); United States of America; Yom Kippur War; Zia-ul-Haq, Muhammed

Subjects: Assassination.; Australia; Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali, 1928-1979.; Cairo (Egypt); Commonwealth of Nations.; Damascus (Syria); Israel; Lahore (Pakistan); Lebanon; Libya; Pakistan--History; Pakistan. Army.; Pakistan. Army. General Headquarters.; Quetta (Pakistan); United States; Wars.; Zia-ul-Haq, Muhammed

GPS: Lahore (Pakistan)
Map Coordinates: 31.5546, 74.3572