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00:00:01 - World War I service

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Partial Transcript: --get started and I'd like--

Segment Synopsis: Hawkins and Martin discuss their time spent in France during World War 1. They talk about their time spent serving as chauffeurs and the skills they developed while serving such as becoming adept mechanics and seamstresses. Also mentioned was the French version of the Frontier Nursing Service that went on to inspire the set up in Kentucky.

Keywords: "Thompy"; American Committee for Devastated France (C.A.R.D.); Bryn Mawr College; Chauffeurs; Christmas; Ford; France; Frontier Nursing Service; Germany; John Kendrick Bangs; Kentucky; Mary Breckinridge; World War I

Subjects: Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; World War, 1914-1918

00:06:55 - Mary Breckinridge and her goats

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Partial Transcript: And can you remember any specifics about Mrs. Breckinridge?

Segment Synopsis: When recounting their early memories of Mary Breckinridge from their time spent in France, Martin fondly recalls Mrs. Breckinridge’s goats, which she brought from Spain to aide her village. Martin also tells about the goats she kept as an ode to her time in France.

Keywords: Alpine goats; Mary Breckinridge; Russia; World War 1; World War I

Subjects: Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; World War, 1914-1918

00:08:22 - Mary Breckinridge and her father

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Partial Transcript: Did you keep up your, um, friendship with Mary Breckinridge when you came back to the United States?

Segment Synopsis: In this segment, Hawkins and Martin describe their relationship with Mary Breckinridge following WW1, after she had founded the Frontier Nursing Service. Hawkins tells about her visit to Mrs. Breckinridge’s centers in 1932 and the backwoods state of Appalachia during that time. Hawkins also discusses Mary's father, Clifton Breckinridge, who assisted mountaineers in their farming endeavors while up against the high altitudes. Mary recalls The Quarterly Bulletin, a magazine which was founded and run by Mary Breckinridge.

Keywords: 1925; 1932; Appalachia; Clifton Breckinridge; Clifton Rodes Breckinridge; Frontier Nursing Service; Hurricane Creek (Ky.); Hyden (Ky.); Kentucky; Magazines; Mary Breckinridge; Mountaineers; Mountains; Terrace cultivation; Terraces; The Quarterly Bulletin

Subjects: Appalachia; Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Kentucky; Subsistence farming

00:11:20 - The New York Committee

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Partial Transcript: Did Mrs. Breckinridge then get you involved with the New York Committee?

Segment Synopsis: Hawkins and Martin recall their experiences in the New York Committee, a branch of the Frontier Nursing Service focused on raising funds. Both Hawkins and Martin discuss the auctions and parties the committee put together. They explain how the club worked in its early years. One example of their charitable endeavors is the bargain box, which the pair mention briefly throughout the segment.

Keywords: "Thompy"; 1939; 1945; Auctions; Bargain box; Charities; Cleveland (Ohio); Frontier Nursing Service; Fundraisers; Fundraising; Leitchfield (Ky.); Long Island (N.Y.); Mary Breckinridge; Mary Turpin; New York (N.Y.); Philanthropists; Sewing; Sewing groups; The Cosmopolitan Club; The New York Committee

Subjects: Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Economic conditions; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Fund raising

00:18:23 - Mary Breckinridge’s involvement in the New York Committee

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Partial Transcript: And Mrs. Breckinridge would come about once a, once a year and speak to the committee?

Segment Synopsis: In this segment, Martin and Hawkins talk about what Mrs. Breckinridge was like as an individual as well as her involvement in the New York Committee. Together they recount some of their favorite memories of her, including quotes of hers and personal anecdotes of their experiences with her. According to the pair, Mrs. Breckinridge was somewhat snobbish but a funny and colorful character. They also praise Mrs. Breckinridge’s leadership prowess and her ability to oversee all the members in order to ensure the committee’s success.

Keywords: Appalachia; Carriage trade; Carriage trays; Catering; Colorful; Couriers; February; Hard workers; January; Mary Breckinridge; Mary Turpin; Mountains; Philadelphia Committee; Publicity; Rich; Silent auctions; Swinging bridges; The Cosmopolitan Club; The New York Committee; Weather

Subjects: Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Economic conditions; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Fund raising

00:24:43 - Physical description of Mary Breckinridge

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Partial Transcript: Can you describe Mrs. Breckinridge to me?

Segment Synopsis: A physical description of Mary Breckinridge is provided by Hawkins and Martin. Phoebe Hawkins also mentions a picture she has of Mrs. Breckinridge which shows her sitting on the side of the road with two pigs. She is described as boyish, with short hair.

Keywords: Boyish; Bristly; Mary Breckinridge; Photographs; Physical features; Pigs; Roadways; Sang; Short hair

Subjects: Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965

00:25:43 - Hawkins visiting Kentucky and Mary Breckinridge

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Partial Transcript: Uh, have you been back? You mentioned you were there in the thirties.

Segment Synopsis: Hawkins tells about her most recent visit to Kentucky, which at the time of this interview was 20 years prior. She and her daughter, Ellen, visited one of the centers of the Frontier Nursing Service for a week in November 1953. The mention of this visit causes Martin and Hawkins to recall Mrs. Breckinridge’s staunch religious beliefs, which were partially spurred by the loss of her two children. The interviewer mentions a privately published book, "Breckie," written by Mrs. Breckinridge that describes her beliefs.

Keywords: 1953; Appalachia; Books; Breckie (book); Clifford Breckinridge ("Breckie") Thompson; Clifford Breckinridge Thompson ("Breckie"); Death; Ellen Hawkins; Frontier Nursing Service; Gospel; Husbands; Kentucky; Mary Breckinridge; Polly Breckinridge Thompson; Religious; Trustees

Subjects: Authors.; Children; Families.; Family histories.; Kentucky; Louisville (Ky.); Religion; Writing

00:28:26 - Future of the Frontier Nursing Service

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Partial Transcript: Um, I was going to ask you about the, uh--I didn’t mean to interrupt but--about the couriers.

Segment Synopsis: When asked about the past couriers for the Frontier Nursing Service, Martin and Hawkins begin to discuss whether or not the service is still necessary. According to Martin, some people, including the younger committee members, think it's not. Hawkins shares a story about a former courier, and also mentions her own daughters’ involvement in the service.

Keywords: 1918; Bargain box; Couriers; Ellen Hawkins; Flu; Folk medicine; Hyden (Ky.); Influenza; Kentucky; Medicines; Pebble Stone; Pills; Richard Nixon; The Frontier Nursing Service; The New York Committee

Subjects: Appalachia; Appalachian Region--Social conditions; Country life; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Influenza Epidemic, 1918-1919; Medical care--Appalachian Region; Medicine, Rural; Rural conditions; Rural health services; Rural health--Kentucky; Traditional medicine

00:33:04 - Richard Nixon visits Hyden / Politics surrounding contraception

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Partial Transcript: Uh, did you read the article in the New Yorker was--that came out last summer right after Nixon’s visit?

Segment Synopsis: In this segment, Martin and Hawkins recall when President Nixon visited one of the centers in Hyden (Ky.). There was significant opposition facing his visit but the staff there were told to keep that sentiment quiet. Also in this segment, the pair discusses Mrs. Breckinridge’s opinions on contraception, as well as her apt record-keeping. Mrs. Breckinridge kept such good records that over 10,000 births are recorded as taking place during her time serving the Frontier Nursing Service.

Keywords: "The Pill"; Ambulances; Appalachia; Birth control; Birth control pills; Clinics; Contraception; Contraceptives; Doctors; Dr. Beasley; Holocaust; Hyden (Ky.); Kentucky; Mary Breckinridge; Record keeping; Richard Nixon; Women

Subjects: Appalachian Region--Social conditions; Birth control--Kentucky; Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965; Childbirth; Country life; Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.; Kentucky--Politics and government; Maternal health services.; Medical care--Appalachian Region; Medicine, Rural; Midwifery--Appalachian Region; Midwives--Appalachian Region; Nixon, Richard M. (Richard Milhous), 1913-1994; Physicians--Kentucky; Rural children; Rural conditions; Rural health services; Rural health--Kentucky